Archaeological Finds from the Baronies of Moyarta, Ibrickane and Clonderlaw

The Other Clare, Volume 29, 2005

By John Rattigan

Introduction
Clare Museum has in its possession a catalogue of archaeological artifacts from County Clare compiled from the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland. This vast catalogue was compiled by Erin Gibbons, Jackie Mac Dermott and Felim Gibbons in October 1999 and is presented in six volumes with the co-operation and support of the National Museum of Ireland.

The purpose of this paper is two-fold: firstly, to create public awareness of the catalogue as a valuable source of information by highlighting the finds from three defunct territorial divisions - the Baronies of Moyarta, Ibrickane and Clonderlaw. There were up to 350 baronies in Ireland at one time, and of these, eleven existed in Clare [1]; the secondary aim is to provide greater access to the data, and by extension the artifacts, as part of the on-going development of a museum service for the county. [2]

Description of the Catalogue
The first two volumes of this six-volume catalogue consist of an alphabetical listing of finds categorised under eighteen separate fields.

In Volume I there is an alphabetical listing of objects by Townland. This field is followed by additional information under the headings of Parish; Barony; Find; Registration Number; Description; Dimensions; Habitat; Irish Antiquities File, OS 6” sheet number; OS 6” sheet co-ordinates; Bog Find (if applicable); Excavation Find (if applicable) and Page reference to Volumes III-VI.

The second volume repeats the information in Volume I, except objects are listed by Find rather than by Townland.

Volume III contains the inventory of archaeological finds from County Clare. It is laid out chronologically from 1785-1999 and includes artifacts from the county held in private possession and other objects from County Clare held by the Irish Folklife, the Art and Industrial and Natural History Divisions of the National Museum of Ireland. Also included is a catalogue of photographs from County Clare and a list of archaeological excavations that have taken place in the county.

The fourth, fifth and sixth volumes contain a photocopied record of the card index of finds from County Clare from the Irish Antiquities Division archive. Each contains a description and illustration of the object. [3]


Description of this List
The information recorded in the various fields listed here is based on information provided in Volume I. Included is the provenance (townland and parish) within each barony, find (object type), description and dimensions (where given), of the sixty or so finds from the baronies Moyarta, Ibrickane, and Clonderlaw. Due to space restriction, data from Volume I listed under the headings of Habitat, Irish Antiquities File, OS 6” sheet number, OS 6” co-ordinates, Bog Find, Excavation and Page References are omitted. Otherwise, the information provided here appears as given in the catalogue.

Underlined objects are part of the long-term loan from the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland to Clare Museum. They are on public display in The Riches of Clare permanent exhibition. [4]

Finally, it would appear that most if not all of the objects recorded from these three baronies were chance finds made through farming, turf cutting or other everyday activities. Some of them were discovered before the establishment of the National Museum and were collected by members of the Royal Irish Academy or the Royal Dublin Society before finding their way into the collection of Irish Antiquities that is now in the National Museum. As a result, the exact circumstances surrounding the discovery of some of the artifacts and their exact provenance is lost to us now [5]. None of the objects listed here were discovered through archaeological excavation.


Objects from the Barony of Moyarta, or Moyferta
The former land division that made up the barony of Moyarta occupied the most southwesterly corner of County Clare. It was bounded to the west and north west by the Atlantic Ocean; to the north by the barony of Ibrickane; to the east by the barony of Clonderlaw; to the south by the Shannon estuary. It measured just over 83,000 acres in area and contained the parishes of Killyballyone, Kilfearagh, Kilrush, Moyarta and part of Kilmacduane. [6]

Thirty-seven objects are listed in Volume I for Moyarta. They are as follows:

Townland: Alva
Parish: Kilmacduane
Find: Spearhead, Bronze, Socketed and Looped
Description: In good condition, slender blade expands in curve at base.
Dimensions: Length 24 cm, Width across blade 3.5 cm, Diameter at mouth 2 cm

Townland: Ballymacurtaun
Parish: Kilrush
Find: Skillet, Bronze
Description: Circular bowl within slightly expanded side; apparently spun. Rim molded with outer lop. Base flat within rounded edges and flattened spur of metal in the centre.
Dimensions: Diameter of mouth: 24 cm, Diameter of base: 19 cm, Height overall 15.25 cm, Height of vessel internally: 12.25 cm, Length of handle 27 cm

Townland: Not given
Parish: Not given
Find: Bronze Trumpet
Description: Open at both ends.
Dimensions: Maximum Length: 271/2 inches, Maximum Diameter: 4 inches, Minimum Diameter 1 13/16 inches

Townland: Not given
Parish: Not given
Find: Bronze Trumpet
Description: Not given.
Dimensions: Maximum Length: 23 inches, Maximum Diameter: 3 ¾ inches, Minimum Diameter: 5/8 inches

Townland: Not given
Parish: Not given
Find: Bronze Trumpet
Description: Bronze Trumpet, closed at mouth. Aperture for blowing at side
Dimensions: Maximum Length: 28 ¾ inches, Maximum Diameter: 3 ¾ inches

Townland: Not given
Parish: Not given
Find: Bronze Trumpet
Description: Middle portion of trumpet. Bronze, slightly curved. All four objects (including three trumpets above) found together at a depth of 7 or 8 feet (under the surface of a bog in the Barony of “Moyarta” County Clare in 1902 or 8.3 miles from Kilkee).
Dimensions: Maximum Length: 24 ¾ inches

Townland: Ballykett
Parish: Not given
Find: Bones, Animal
Description: Bones may be animal\modern. Found 2.4 cm below surface.
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Carrigaholt
Parish: Not given
Find: Ingot, Gold
Description: From a portion of a plain bar of gold, with a bulbous hammered end, apparently intended for the usual terminal enlargement of such an article. Weighs 1 oz 17 dwt 6 gr.
Dimensions: Length: 7.5 cm

Townland: Doonaghboy
Parish: Kilfearagh
Find: Mace-Head or Axe Hammer, Stone (perforated)
Description: About half a highly-polished perforated stone mace-head or axehammer. Rectangular in cross-section with oblique convex sides. The break is ancient. The two broad faces slope towards each other from the perforation to the outer edge.
Dimensions: Maximum Length (now): 8.3cm, Maximum Width: 7.8 cm, Maximum Thickness: 4 cm, Diameter of Hole: 3.6 cm

Townland: Dough
Parish: Kilfearagh
Find: Coin, sixpence, silver, William IV
Description: William IV sixpence found while metal-detecting on Kilkee Beach
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Dough
Parish: Kilfearagh
Find: Scales, weighing
Description: Weighing scales, found while metal-detecting on Kilkee Beach
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Drumellihy
Parish: Kilmacduane
Find: Vessel, wooden, (containing bog butter)
Description: Cylindrical wooden vessel which has a construction approx. 7.5 cm from the rim, producing a rounded shoulder. Above the shoulder the neck is vertical.
Dimensions: Height: 36.5 cm, Maximum External Diameter of Base: 19 cm, Maximum External Diameter of Neck: 14 cm

Townland: Kilbaha South
Parish: Kilballyowen
Find: Cauldron, Cast-Bronze, Post Medieval
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Kilkee
Parish: Not given
Find: Tallies, so called x 5
Description: Five so called tallies, sticks with notches cut in them used by illiterate labourers in the district of Kilkee to keep an account of the number of days wages due to them.
Dimensions: 1. Length: 22 7/8 inches, 2. Length 21 ½ inch, 3. Length 20 5/8 inches, 4. Length 18 inches, 5. Length 15 5/8 inches

Townland: Kilkee
Parish: Kilfearagh
Find: Sword, Bronze Flange-hilted
Description: Leaf-shaped blade, cutting-edge gapped and irregular. Ricasso present. Cross-section of blades a pointed oveal. V-shaped shoulders. Hilt broken off in antiquity at shoulders and new hilt cast on. Rectangular in cross section.
Dimensions: Length: 51.9 cm, Maximum Width (blade) 3 cm, Width at shoulders 4.4 cm, Max thickness (blade) 6.5 cm

Townland: Kilkee Bay (vicinity of)
Parish: Not given
Find: Lamp, Bronze
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Querrin
Parish: Moyarta
Find: Axeheads, Stone “Riverford” x 6
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Drumellihy
Parish: Kilmacduane
Find: Axehead, Iron
Description: Iron axehead of the type used by woodsmen. It is heavily corroded but its nature can be discerned clearly. It was made by bending a single piece to form a pear shaped eye, the long sides of which were forced to project as the blade.
Dimensions: Length: 19.3 cm, Width at Cutting Edge: 10.2 cm, Width at eye: 6.1 cm, Internal axes of eye: 5.3 cm and 3.5 cm

Townland: Kilrush
Parish: Not given
Find: Armlet, copper, penannular
Description: Copper penannular armlet, formerly plated with gold. Original entry; “Beautiful example of copper ring. Found by Mr Wakeman in an old wrap box at Kilrush County Clare and presented to Mr Petrie”.
Dimensions: Width 3 ½ inches

Townland: Loop Head
Parish: Not given
Find: Timbers, Ship
Description: Ship timbers from a wreck off Loop Head
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Scattery Island
Parish: Kilrush
Find: Seal, Papal (of Gregory XI)
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Scattery Island
Parish: Kilrush
Find: Bell-shrine, The Clogan Oir
Description: The Bell Shrine in two parts, to be connected by a detachable bronze pin
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Teernagloghane
Parish: Kilmacduane
Find: Axehead, Bronze, Socketed
Description: Socketed bronze axehead with heavy green patination pitted over much of the surface. The socket is almost circular. The rim is flat but in 3 places it still retains portions of metal from the pouring gate.
Dimensions: Length: 9.9 cm, Width (cutting edge): 6.9 cm, Average Thickness (walls of socket) 5.5 mm

Townland: Teernagloghane
Parish: Kilmacduane
Find: Axehead, Bronze Socketed
Description: Socketed bronze axehead, cutting edge missing in antiquity, split along casting seam opposite loop, large piece missing out of one face, loop broken off. Damage occurred in ancient times.
Dimensions: Length: 5.7cm, External axes of socket: 4.4 cm & 3.4 cm

Townland: Teernagloghane
Parish: Kilmacduane
Find: Ring, Bronze Tubular (portion of)
Description: Portion of tubular bronze ring. Cast, but internal casting seems so rubbed down that it is worn through that it gives the impression of a folded piece of metal meeting edge to edge. External surface convex internal almost flat.
Dimensions: External Diameter complete, Ring: 12 cm, Internal Diameter: 10 cm, Thickness: 1.95 cm


Objects from the Barony of Ibrickane, or Ibrickan
The barony of Ibrickane was bordered to the north by the barony of Corcomroe; to the east by the baronies of Inchiquin, Islands and Clonderlaw; to the south by the barony of Moyarta and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. It measured just over 57,000 acres in area and contained the parishes of Kilfarboy, Killard, Kilmurry and part of the parish of Kilmacduane. [7]

The 14 objects listed in Volume I for Ibrickane are as follows:

Townland: Ballyvaskin South
Parish: Kilfarboy
Find: Cooking Vessel
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Caherlean
Parish: Killard
Find: Axehead, Stone
Description: Polished Stone Axehead, tapering from wide, deeply convex cutting-edge to narrow, straight ended butt. Cross-section a round pointed oval. A few small flakes have been chipped off the surface in antiquity. Found in surface layer of bog, 3 inches below.
Dimensions: Length: 17.2 cm, Maximum Width: 7.7 cm, Maximum Thickness: 3.25 cm

Townland: Doolough
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Arrowhead, Flint (Hollow-based)
Description: Arrowhead made of black flint. The hollow base is so deep that two barb-like projections are formed. One is defective at its tip. The whole surface on both faces has been worked with secondary flaking. The tip is rounded. Cross-section a pointed oval.
Dimensions: Length 3.3cm, Width across hollow at base 2.2 cm, Maximum Thickness 7 mm

Townland: Doonbeg
Parish: Not given
Find: Quernstone, Upper and Lower
Description: Quern upper and lower stone mounted for use. This is a specimen of the ordinary type of hand quern for use by one person.
Dimensions: Top stone Diameter: 15 3/8 inches, Under stone: Diameter 16 and 1/8 inches

Townland: Doonbeg Sandhills
Parish: Not given
Find: Object, Stone (conical)
Description: Conical object of grey stone, with slightly constricted base. Material: slate
Dimensions: Length 2.3 cm, Maximum Diameter 1.1 cm

Townland: Doonbeg Sandhills, vicinity of Doonbeg
Parish: Not given
Find: Point, bone, segmented
Description: Segmented object made from a pointed bone of rounded cross-section. Five segments remain (the largest is broken off and now separate), but probably there were more. The segments increase in diameter from the bluntly pointed end towards the broken end
Dimensions: Length: 3.4 cm Diameter of Largest segment: 1.3 cm

Townland: Doonbeg Sandhills, vicinity of Doonbeg
Parish: Not given
Find: Point, bone, fragment
Description: Small tip of bone point of rounded cross-section.
Dimensions: Length: 1.5 cm Maximum Diameter: 9mm

Townland: Doonbeg, Coolvawn
Parish: Killard
Find: Hammerhead, Stone (perforated)
Description: Perforated stone hammerhead with dome-shaped end or hammer surfaces and slightly concave sides. The cross-section is circular. The perforation, which is nearer the slightly narrower end, is cylindrical; drill marks are still visible.
Dimensions: Length: 9.55 cm, Maximum Diameter: 5.4 cm Diameter of perforation: 1.95 cm

Townland: Doonmore
Parish: Doonbeg
Find: Rushlight Holder
Description: Rushlight holder of unusual form, iron, in good condition.
Dimensions: Length: 12 ½ cm, Width across candle sockets: 5 ½ cm, Diameter of base: 4 ½ cm

Townland: Miltown Malbay (near)
Parish: Not Given
Find: Ring/Armlet, jet
Description: Jet ring. This ring should be in the Register and perhaps is, but cannot be traced. A card is attached to it with the following inscription “Armlet of Kimeridge slate, found in a turf bog near Miltown Malbay, Co Clare”
Dimensions: External circumference: 13 ½ inches, Internal diameter: 3 ½ inches.

Townland: Mountrivers
Parish: Killard
Find: Bog-butter (lump of)
Description: Roughly frustrum-shaped lump of butter the sides of which were “cleaned” before it reached the museum. Tapers from its max diameter which is roughly centrally placed toward a fairly wide end (presumably the top?) which bears a saucer-shaped depression.
Dimensions: Maximum Diameter 18.2 cm, Maximum Diameter c 41 cm, Average Diameter of top of dish: 21.09 cm, Maximum Diameter (top) 29.72 cm, Maximum Height: 35 cm, Minimum Height: 32 cm

Townland: Mullagh (near)
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Axehead, Bronze Flanged
Description: Specimen with low cast flanges and slight stop-ridge. The cutting-edge is splayed and convex. Sides are facetted. Probably from a bog in the Mullagh area.
Dimensions: Length 13.4 cm, Maximum Width: 6.6 cm, Maximum Thickness: 1.4 cm

Townland: Spanish Point
Parish: Not given
Find: Object, Polished (of fine grey sandstone)
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Toor Bog (vicinity of Miltown Malbay)
Parish: Kilfarboy
Find: Axehead, Polished Stone
Description: Polished stone axehead, broad in proportion to length. Oval cross-section. Butt sharp. Cutting-edge convex; narrow edges somewhat flattened. Found 3 feet deep in bog
Dimensions: Length: 13 cm, Maximum Width: 7.7 cm, Maximum Thickness: 2.8 cm


Objects from the Barony of Clonderlaw, or Clonderalaw
The barony of Clonderlaw was bounded to the north by the barony of Islands; the east by Estuary of the Fergus; to the south, by the estuary of the Shannon; and to the west, by the Baronies of Moyarta and Ibrickane. The barony occupied 98,500 acres and contained the parishes of Kilchrist (Kilchreest), Kildysart, Kilfiddane, Killimer, Killofin, Kilmichael,
and Kilmurry. [8]

The 23 objects listed for Clonderlaw in Volume I are as follows:

Townland: Ardnagla
Parish: Kichreest
Find: Axehead, Stone
Description: Trapezoidal shaped polished stone axe made by grinding the wide end of a natural flat stone.
Dimensions: Length: 17.3cm, Width: 6.3cm, Thickness: 1.8cm

Townland: Ballyvoohan
Parish: Kildysart
Find: Beetle, Wood
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Length 38 cm, Width 3.4 cm

Townland: Burren
Parish: Kilchreest
Find: Bell of Burren, Bronze
Description: 13th century Ecclesiastical Bell know as “The Bell of the Burren”. It was used in religious ceremonies up to 1860.
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Cahermurphy
Parish: Not given
Find: Mether, Wooden
Description: Very well preserved two-handled mether carved out of a single piece of wood, except for the base which was a separate entity. How this was fitted is not evident as there is no rebate for it – probably this object is unfinished.
Dimensions: Max Height: 26.8cm, Quadrangular Mouth: 17.2 cm x 15.5 cm

Townland: Canon Island
Parish: Killadysert
Find: Human Bones
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Coolmeen (Mill)
Parish: Kilfiddane
Find: Millstone
Description: Described as 102 cm in diameter and 24 cm thick. The central perforation is 16.5 cm in diameter and is surrounded on one face by a groove 7.5cm deep and wide. The remainder of this face is grooved or “feathered”.
Dimensions: Diameter: 102 cm; Thickness 24 cm

Townland: Cross More
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Arrowhead, Stone (Barbed & Tanged)
Description: Small barbed and tanged arrowhead of triangular shape. Point and tip of one barb is missing; bifacially flaked. Long edges irregularly serrated by secondary flaking. Pointed oval in cross-section. Found 5 feet deep in bog.
Dimension: Length: 3.5 cm, Length of Tang: 6mm, Width of Tang: 9mm, Width across barb: 2.4 cm, Maximum Thickness: 7 mm

Townland: Crovraghan
Parish: Killadysert
Find: Axehead, Stone
Description: Stone axe-like tool of a pale green light-weight stone. Smoothly polished surfaces except at the butt-end which is chipped into shape and has a striking platform. The cutting-edge is injured but is narrow and rather pointed and suggests a pick.
Dimensions: Length 10.5 cm, Central Thickness 2.5 cm, Width across middle: 4.5 cm, Width across platform butt: 1.5 cm

Townland: Crovraghan
Parish: Killadysert
Find: Axehead, Stone (“Riverford” type)
Description: Stone axehead, Riverford type, shale or limestone pebble roughly shaped and ground smooth on the surface towards the cutting-edge which is perfectly shaped and preserved. Irregular pointed butt. Section thick and flattish.
Dimensions: Length 24 cm, Average Thickness 4.25 cm, Width across cutting edge 8 cm.

Townland: Derreen
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Hanging Bowl, Bronze
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Derreen
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Bucket, Wooden (decorated)
Description: Made from 15 yew wood staves (each c 3cm wide) and a one-piece base. The rim is strengthened by a plain bronze binding strip. The body is bound by 3 engraved bronze bands (each 3.5 cm wide) nailed to the wood.
Dimensions: External Rim Diameter: 17.4 cm, Height: 16.5 cm, Thickness: 0.56 cm

Townland: Derreen
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Bucket, Wooden (decorated)
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Derreen
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Dish, Bronze, with marigold pattern
Description: Large circular round bottomed vessel made of a single piece of bronze which was probably beaten out of a wooden mould and then finished by spinning. The upper edge of the vessel is bent inwards to produce an almost horizontal rim.
Dimensions: Height: 16.8 cm, Estimated Diameter at Rim: 35.3 cm, Thickness 1mm

Townland: Derreen
Parish: Kilmurry
Find: Vessel, wooden roughout
Description: Nearly completed. Bottom flat externally, sides vertical Rim flat. Oval in shape but distortion caused by drying slightly when specimen lifted from bog. There are few straight cuts across the bottom externally.
Dimensions: Axes at rim externally: 24.3 cm & 22 cm, Internal axes: 18.1 cm & 16.1 cm, Height: 12.5 cm

Townland: Kildaysart
Parish: Not given
Find: Seal, impression, in red wax
Description: Seal. Impression in red wax. Circular. On field, a gabled church with spire. Inscription: “+ SIGILLVM. CAPITVLI.IMELACENSIS”. The matrix of the seal is already in the collection.
Dimensions: Diameter: 1 5/8 inches

Townland: Killimor
Parish: Not given
Find: Axe, Stone (broken)
Description: Portion of stone axehead, granular, oval cross-section. Butt missing. Polished.
Diminsions: Length: 10 cm, Width: 7.5 cm, Thickness: 3.5 cm

Townland: Knockmore
Parish: Kilmihil
Find: Casket, Wooden
Description: Made up of 6 panels of wood which are held together by wooden dowels, and strengthened by binding strips of bronze. In the centre of the lid is a bronze handle and slightly off centre on the front panel is a bronze lock – the clasp is missing.
Dimensions: Length: 36 cm, Width: 9.5 cm, Overall Height: 9.5 cm, Average Thickness (panels): 8 mm

Townland: Knockmore
Parish: Kilmihil
Find: Shoe, Leather
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Lack East
Parish: Kilmihil
Find: Axehead, Polished Stone
Description: Slender axehead with approximate straight cutting-edge; butt apparently broken off in antiquity. Specimen damaged on both faces. Of oval cross-section. Found during drainage operations at a depth of c 18 inches.
Dimensions: Length: 16 cm, Maximum Width 5.7 cm, Maximum Thickness 2.55 cm

Townland: Lack East Bog find
Parish: Kilmihil
Find: Cauldron, Bronze
Description: Cauldron is in two sections, the upper body and the bottom. Made of sheets of bronze riveted together.
Dimensions: Height (approx) 21 inches, Diameter (approx) 21 inches

Townland: Lacken
Parish: Kilmihil
Find: Quern-Stone, decorated
Description: Not given
Dimensions: Not given

Townland: Moy (bog find)
Parish: Kilfiddane
Find: Dress, Woman’s (17th Century)
Description: Tunic of woollen textile, reddish brown, damaged incomplete. The textile is fairly closely woven and separate pieces are stitched together to form the garment. It has a wide round neck opening and is buttoned down the centre front.
Dimensions: L 1.15m

Townland: Moy (bog find)
Parish: Kilfiddane
Find: Spearhead, Bronze
Description: Excellently preserved bronze spearhead with short, shouldered blade. The mid-rib is a continuation of the socket and angular. The cutting-edges are bevelled. There are roughly triangular depressions on either side of the mid-rib.
Dimensions: Length: 10.9 cm, Length of blade 7.2 cm, Maximum Width (blade): 4.1 cm, Diameter (socket at base): 2 cm

The catalogue of County Clare Archives in the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland is an important local resource and is unique to Clare Museum. It is available for viewing by appointment with the curator.


Bilbliograpy
Connolly, S J., (ed) The Oxford Companion to Irish History, Oxford University Press (Oxford 2002)

Gibbons, E., Mc Dermott, J., Gibbons, F., County Clare Archives in the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland. (1999, unpublished catalogue)
Rattigan, J., Mac Conmara, T., “County Clare Archives in the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland – Objects from the Parish of Tuamgraney”, Sliabh Aughty, No 13, 2003
Wallace, P. F., and O’Flionn, R (eds) Treasures of the National Museum of Ireland – Irish Antiquities, Gill & Macmillian (Dublin, 2002)


Web Sites


Notes

1. There is disagreement as to the number of baronies that once existed in the country. Connolly (pp 41) states that there were 270; a genealogical web site gives 311, while www.clarelibrary.ie states there were 350. In addition to the three mentioned here, the other baronies in Clare were Corcomroe, Burren, Inchiquin, Islands, Bunratty Upper, Bunratty Lower, Tulla Upper and Tulla Lower.
2. See also Sliabh Aughty Journal No 11, 2003 edition p44-46
3. Gibbons, E., Mc Dermott, J., Gibbons, F., County Clare Archives in the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland. (1999, unpublished catalogue) pp. iv
4. See The National Museum of Ireland, Irish Antiquities Division Collection for a full list of objects on loan to Clare Museum from the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland.
5. See Wallace, P. F., and O’Floinn, R (eds) Treasures of the National Museum of Ireland – Irish Antiquities (2002, Gill & Macmillan) Dublin, P1-45 for a detailed history of the origins of the Irish Antiquities collection of the National Museum of Ireland.
6. See Barony of Moyarta
7. See Barony of Ibrickane
8. See Barony of Clonderlaw

 

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