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Archaeology of the Burren: Prehistoric Forts and Dolmens in North Clare by Thomas Johnson Westropp

Part IV: The Eastern Border: Footnotes

1. In this, as in the earlier Papers on the Clare forts, I use ‘prehistoric’ for any unrecorded early period, and ‘fort’ for a residential enclosure not necessarily for any military purpose.

2. Forts near Killaloe, vol. xxi., p. 289; Moghane, &c., vol. xxiii., p. 384; Cahercommaun, &c., vol. xxvi., p. 142; Inchiquin, p. 363; Ballyganner, Kilfenora, &c., vol. xxvii., p. 116; vol. xxxi., p. 287; Carran, vol. xxviii., p. 357; Kilcorney, vol. xxix., p. 367; Caherdooneerish, &c., vol. xxxi., p. 273; Rathborney, &c.; Loop Head, vol. xxviii., p. 411; Bodyke, vol. xxxiv., p. 75; Burren, vol. xxx., pp. 294, 398. Also see ‘Proc. R.I.A.’, vol. vi., Ser. III; Cahers of County Clare, p. 415; vol. iv., Ser. III.; Magh Adhair and Cahercalla, p. 55; cromlechs, p. 542.

3. Cahercommaun, Cashlaun Gar, Roughan, Noughaval, Ballykinvarga, Caherconnell, Cahercashlaun, Cahermacnaughten, Balliny, Cahercloggaun, Ballyallaban, and Caherdooneerish were alone intended for description in 1895.

4. For the beautiful swan legend (so like that in the poem of Morris), see Dr. Macnamara’s Paper on ‘Inchiquin’ (‘Journal’, vol. xxxi., p. 212).

5. Mr. Robert Twigge has recently found a record identifying the hitherto anonymous patron saint of this parish as Findclu, descendant of Aenghus Cinaitin, and living in the seventh century.

6. Dublin Reg. Deeds, Book IV., p. 465.

7. Journal’, vol. xxvi., p. 368.

8. Exhibited by Dr. G. U. Macnamara to the Society at Lisdoonvarna, 1900, and illustrated in the ‘Journal’, vol. xxxi., p. 358.

9. These hills dominate all central Clare, and are visible even from Knockpatrick, Co. Limerick.

10. Journal’, vol. xxxi., p. 12.

11. Ibid, vol. xxvii., pp. 117, 118.

12. Prof. Freeman (quoting Merobaudes), ‘Western Europe in the Fifth Century’, p. 280.

13. Now at Edenvale.

14. Book of Distribution and Survey, p. 515.

15. Plan and elevations given, fig. 3a and 3b, p. 218.

16. Plan given, fig. 4, p. 214.

17. ‘Journal’, vol. xxvi. (1896), p. 151.

18. Ibid., vol. xxviii., p. 357.

19. Whom legend connects with the Glasgeivnagh hill, not far to the north of these cists. (See ‘Journal’, vol. xxv., p. 227.)

20. ‘Journal’, vol. xxvii., p. 126.

21. ‘Dolmens’, vol. i., p. 75, fig. 78.

22. ‘Journal’, vol. xxvi., p. 151.

23. ‘Dolmens’, vol. i., p. 75, fig. 79.

24. 14 B, 23, p. 66.

25. ‘Dolmens’, vol. i., p. 76. See also p. 218.

26. ‘Journal’, vol., xxviii., p. 359.

27. Plan given, fig. 5, p. 214.

28. ‘Journal’, vol., xxvi., pp. 363, 364.

29. ‘Journal’, vol. xxvi., p. 364.

30. ‘Trans. R.I.A.’, vol. xxxii. (c), p. 249.

31. ‘Revue Celtique’, vol. xvii. (1896), p. 281.

32. ‘Tripartie Life of St. Patrick’ (edited by W. Stokes), p. 237.

33. ‘Silva Gadelica’, vol. ii., p. 128.

34. No other term combines the compound of god and ghost so well.

35. Pursuit of Diarmaid and Grainne.

36. Wars of Torlough.

37. Comaun, or ‘Chuman,’ was a not uncommon personal name in the Corcomroes in early times, and is attatched to the great triple fort which is visible from the tulach across the glen.

38. For the general subject of ‘Tulachs,’ see Paper, by J. O’Daly, in ‘Journal’, vol. iii (1854), p. 87; see also ‘Silva Gadelica’; the ‘Pursuit of Diarmaid and Grainne’ (S. H. O’Grady); the ‘Battle of Gabhra’ (N. O’Kearney); and the ‘Tripartite Life of St. Patrick’ (W. Stokes). O’Daly is, I think, mistaken as to ‘tulach’ being very common in Clare place-names. We find Tullaghloghaun (Clooney), Tullycommaun (Kilnaboy), Tullyodea (Ruan), Tullyoghan (Kilraghtis), Tulla (nan apstol.), Tullachboy (Kilmaley), Tullaher (Killard), Tullabrack (Kilmacduan), Tullycreen (Kilmurry mac Mahon). Several, if not most, of these names refer only to natural mounds.

39. See plan, fig. 1, p. 218.

40. ‘Dolmens of Ireland’, vol. i., p. 73. Another dolmen is called ‘Leaba-na-leagh,’ or ‘Leac-na-leagh.’ See, however, Dr. Joyce’s ‘Irish Names of Places’, Ser. II., chap. iv.,
p. 104, and note ‘Leaba an laeich,’ in County Cavan.

41. For the legend, see my note in ‘Journal’, vol. xxv., p. 227.

42. ‘Journal’, vol. xxvi., p. 363.

43. ‘Dolmens of Ireland’.

44. ‘Journal’, vol. xxix., p. 382. The second (fallen) cist of Termon is there described at p. 381.

45. I have very briefly noted this fort in ‘Proc. R.I.A.’, vol. xxiv. (c), p. 274 ; and the ‘Handbook of the West Coast of Ireland,’ ‘J. R. S. A. I.’ (1904), p. 106.

46. Accustomed to the endless remains of levelled enclosures on the hills, they, doubtless, from its great size, and no general view being possible, failed to recognise it as a congener of little ring-walls of 100 feet to 120 feet in diameter, so common in Clare.

47. Dr. Pococke’s ‘Tour in Ireland’ (edited by G. Stokes), p. 107.

48. Reputedly named from Bheara the Firbolg. There is a certain fairy king, Finvarra, who dwelt in Knockma, in County Galway: see ‘Journal’, vol. xxxv., p. 34.

49. Kinvara creek is connected with the tenth-century legend of the voyage of the Hui Corra in their atonment for their destruction of the churches of Connaught. They went to the baile of Kinvara, watch the sun set from its haven, and then go out into the deep ‘to meet the Lord on the sea.’- ‘Revue Celtique’, xiv. (1893), p. 37.

50. Leabar-na-hUidhre (‘Revue Celtique’, vol. ix., p. 477).

51. The received account is evidently a mixture of two stories. In one, Cellach was of full age in 537; in the other, he was murdered between 650 and 660, at the instigation of King Guaire; but the allusion to the fort remains of value.

52. ‘Silva Gadelica’, vol. ii., p. 65.

53. ‘Dindsenchas,’ p. 78 ; ‘Revue Celtique’ (1894), p. 478.

54. Inquisition taken at Galway, August 11th, 1607 (P.R.O.I.).


Part 4