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Archaeology of the Burren: Prehistoric Forts and Dolmens in North Clare by Thomas Johnson Westropp

Part VI: Survey Methodology; Cahermakerrila Group: Footnotes

1. Vol. xxi, p. 462; vol. xxii, p. 191; vol. xxiii, p. 281, p. 432; vol. xxvi, pp. 142, 362; vol. xxvii, p. 116; vol. xxviii, p. 352; vol. xxix, p. 367; vol. xxxi, pp. 1, 273; vol. xxxv, pp. 205, 232; vol. xli, p. 343; vol. xliii, p. 232.

2. Like most matters relating to forts this finds a place in early Irish Literature. ‘I saw a liss topped with trees’ (MacConglinne, ed. Meyer, p. 68). ‘Spiked thorn bushes grow on the site (sic, read ‘side’) of a half ruined liss, the weight of a heavy harvest bows them down, hazel nuts of the fairest crops drop from the great trees of the raths’ (Guesting of Athirne, from Book of Leinster, ‘Eriu’, vol. vii, p. 3). The last well recalls the coral-like hedges of the forts in the autumn. ‘An apple tree in every liss’ (Battle of Magh Rath, p. 131, circa 1170-97), and other similar allusions.

3. Vol. xxxviii, pp. 28, 221, 344.

4. Vol. xxvii, pp. 217, 371; vol. xxix, p. 186, and xxxii, p. 38; xxxix, p. 113; vol. xli, pp. 5, 17.

5. Carrigaholt to Loop Head, vol. i, p. 219; vol. ii, pp. 103, 134, 225; Kilkee vol. iii, pp. 38, 153; for some of the Corcomroe forts, see also vol. i, p. 14.

6. Folk Lore’ (‘Survey of Clare’), vol. xxi, p. 198.

7. Hardiman Deeds, ‘Trans. R. I. Acad.’, vol. xv (sect. c.), pp. 38, 42.

8. Fiants of Elizabeth (App. Report, Dep. Keeper Records, Ir., No. xv), Nos. 4263, 4274.

9. Inquisitions, P.R.O.I. and Book of Distribution and Survey, Co. Clare.

10. Journal’, vol. xxviii, p. 363.

11. Fiants of Elizabeth, Nos. 4263, 4274.

12. A fine fort described, ‘Journal’, vol. xxviii, p. 365.

13. Parochial Survey,’ vol. iii, p. 287.

14. Revue Celtique’, vol. xiii, p. 317.

15. Leabhar na gceart’ (ed. O’Donovan), pp. 87, 91.

16. Annals of Ulster.

17. Fiants of Elizabeth, No. 4761.

18. Frost, ‘Hist and Topog. of Co. Clare’, p. 20, also p. 303.

19. Save the assertion on the 19th century inscription in Ennis Abbey founded on a baseless Elizabethan conversation on the arms in Limerick Cathederal. MSS., Trinity Colllege, Dublin, E3, 16. See ‘Journal’, vol. xxviii, p. 46. In usual genealogical logic the carved panels dated 1460, therefore the modern inscription was about 1640, and proved events in the 13th century.

20. Proc. R. I. Acad.’, vol. xxv (sect. c.), p. 376; vol. xxvi, p. 164. In the List of Mayors of Limerick (though untrustworthy) in the 13th century we find, in 1216, J. Russell, alias Creagh (M); 1263, John Russell alias Creaghe; 1312, John Creagh, of Adare.

21. Book of Ui Maine. Mr. R. Twigge gave me the extract. See ‘Proc. R. I. Acad.’. vol. xxxii, p. 60. Macan was the first person slain at the siege of Magh Adhair.

22. Book of Munster (MSS. R.I. Acad. 23 E. 26, p. 39.). See ‘Journal’, vol. xxiii p. 192. ‘Proc. R. I. Acad.’, vol. xxix, p. 196.

23. Such small house rings, like satellites, about the chief fort, are named in our Annals (eg., F.M.) 1014: ‘The dun and the houses outside the dun.’ As to souterrians, the Orvar odd saga (Baring Gould, ‘Deserts of France’, vol. i, p. 200) tells how such were found by the Norse, in Ireland, with women hiding in them, their entrances hiden by bushes. Some fine souterrains near Tuam are described by Dr. T. B. Costello (‘Galway Arch. and Hist. Soc.’, vol. ii, p. 109, and later).

24. Some of it is nearly as fine as Cahermurphy (‘Journal’, vol. xli, p. 129) or certain Kerry forts.

25. A swampy plateau covered with heath, pinguicula and sundew. I speak with reserve, for there was a Macotire family, ‘Maurice Macotere living at the end of the world in Ireland,’ 1290 (C.D.I., vol. i, p. 306), and the fort Cahermacateer in Co. Clare is called Cahermacteire in 1666, and Cahermacdirrigg in 1675. However, the contrasted name seems to decide the question for Knockaunvicteera.

26. ‘Breffy’ is found at Lisdoonvarna, Miltown Malbay, Kilkee, and several places in Clonderlaw. Wolf remains are very rare in the Co. Clare caves, though bears are common.

27. O’Brien’s Rental.

28. Ord. Survey Letters, Co. Clare, vol. i, p, 221, 222.

29. See Frost, loc. cit., p. 32.

30. Journal’, vol. xxxv, p. 355; ‘Proc. R. I. Acad.’, vol. xxvii, p. 377.

31. Vita S. Mochullei, Analecta Bollaadiana, cf. ‘Journal’, vol. xli, p. 377, also ‘Silva Gadelica’, vol. ii, pp. 107, 110, and Journal, xi (1870), p. 95.

32. Journal’, vol. xxx, p. 355.

33. Ibid., p. 342; also ‘Limerick Field Club’, vol. iii, p. 51. Oughtdarra is reputed to be named from the oratory of St. Sinnach Mac Dara, but the derivation is very doubtful. It is Wafferig in the Papal Taxation, 1302; Killagleach and Vetforoich form the Rectory of Glae, 1419 (‘Cal. Papal Reg.’, vol. vii, p. 118); Owghtory (a separate parish from Killilagh) in 1584, and Ughdora in Petty’s Map, 1655. None of these suggest the sound ‘dara,’ still less ‘macdara.’

34. Journal’, vol. xxxv, p. 352.


Part 6