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Archaeology of the Burren: Prehistoric Forts and Dolmens in North Clare by Thomas Johnson Westropp

Part VI: Knockauns Mountain: Footnotes

1. Journal’, vol. xxxv, p. 351. My photograph of this interesting fort is published in Dr. A. Guébhard’s very helpful monograph on European ring forts (ongrés préhistorique iii, Antun), p. 1007.

2. Local legend assigns the little oratory with its round-headed east and south lights to St. Columba, and the rock Lecknaneeve on which he landed after leaving Aran is shown on the shore below. His other church in a ring fort in Glencolumkille is described, supra, vol. xliii, p. 250.

3. Journal’, vol. xxxi, p.10.

4. Journal’, vol. xxxi., pp. 275-6.

5. Annals of Tighernach, Ulster (1094), Chronicon Scotorum (1090), Four Masters and Loch Cé (1094). The Four Masters give under 1084 a raid of the Connacht men into Thomond, when ‘they burned duns and churches and took away spoils.’

6. Cathreim Thoirdhealbhaigh. See ‘Proc. R. I. Acad.’, vol. xxvii, pp. 292-3.

7. What remained of the Cathair of Craggagh (a large ring fort between Liscoonera and Killonaghan church) was being carted away for road metal in May, 1914. It had, however, long ago been defaced, as a house adjoined it and is sharing its fate.

8. It has not, however, got the numerous ‘booley’ names so notable on Mount Callan.

9. Journal’, vol. xxxi, p. 4. Black Head is the Mons Niger of certain early Portolan maps; ‘m. negri’ in the Upsal map, 1450; ‘m. neig’ in Agnesi’s map, 1516; ‘montes negros’ in Voltius, 1593, and ‘Niger mons’ in the curious late map, ‘Hybernia seu Irlant.’ which combines Ptolemy, the Portolans and the late Elizabethan maps. It is Doinhooft in the ‘Zee Atlas’ of Jacob Aertoz, 1668, but this is transferred to Hags Head in Jannson’s Atlas, Amsterdam, 1661, and ‘Le Neptune François’, 1693, which rightly name Black Head Can Brayne or Can Borayne - i.e., Ceann Boirne.

10. Not Caherdoonfergus as on the maps. This was an obsession of O’Donovan who was at the time seeking for traces of Fergus mac Roigh in Burren. Dr. MacNamara and I got the forms Dunirias, Dooneerish and Caherdooneerish before I noticed that the mythic Irgus was connected with Black Head or Ceann Boirne in the poem of Mac Liac.

11. Journal’, vol. xxxi, p. 7.

12. I have ventured to suggest this view for discussion, not for assertion, in these pages, vol. xl, p. 291. Turlough Hill fort and Ballydonohan, with, perhaps, Creevagh near Tullycommaun, may be also ceremonial or religious structures.

13. Journal’ vol. xxxi, p. 275.

14. Journal’, vol. xxxi, p. 284.

15. Journal’, vol. xxxi, p. 283.

16. Of course the gate was always the weak spot in such forts. The early Irish allude to this - e.g., in Book of Leinster, p. 37 b 20: ‘It is a peril to be upon the fort unfortified and the shout of the person in its door that has conquered it.’

17. Journal’, vol. xxxi, p. 15.

18. As for example, Casteon-Vasson (Alpes Maritimes). See ‘Comptes rendus de l’association française pour l’avancement des sciences’, xxxiii, session 1904 (Dr. A. Guébhard and M. Paul Goby); ‘Enceintes préhistoriques, Castelars,’ ‘Congrés préhist. de France’, 1905, p. 48; and ‘Le Murum Duplex des Gaules,’ Guébhard, ‘Soc. Préhist. de France’, Tome iii, p. 146.

19. I owe this note to Mr. Hubert T. Knox.

20. Journal’, vol. xl, p. 124; xlii, p. 320.

21. Vol. xxxi, p. 14.

22. Saunders’ News Letter’, 11 March, 1790.

23. ‘Burren’ is the village of Mortyclough near Finavarra

24. This can only be Corcomroe, the only Burren Abbey.

25. If anything was really found conglomerate, is possibly meant; as granite is often confused with this rock.

26. Note recurrence of seven hours, seven skeletons, virtually thrice seven steps, twice seven niches. I presume the newspaper is answerable for such spellings as appear.

27. Of course absurd and unfounded theories still find their way into newspapers. Indeed, too often, the lowest form of Archaeology gets most publicity, fortunately ephemeral.

 

Part 6

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