Agriculture: Agricultural Societies
Marcus Keane, land agent, County Clare.
28. Agricultural societies have been established; but they were of very
little use to the cottier tenants – they were for the higher class
of farmers. But I think the foundation for improvement has been laid,
and that a few years will make a very great change in the agricultural
condition of the small tenants in the County Clare.
Robert O’Brien, esq., land proprietor, and agent to properties
in the counties of Clare and Limerick.
6. A farming society, professing to be for the counties of Limerick, Clare
and Tipperary, has been in existence for the last few years, and has certainly
produced some good in inducing cattle breeders to take more pains about
their stock than they would otherwise do; but every effort to extend its
application to the small farmers has been attended with failure from want
of co-operation, arising from its sphere of action being too extended.
When I was manager, in 1841, I endeavoured to establish branches in every
barony, for the benefit of small farmers, making the condition that £10
should be contributed to the parent society out of that barony. Though
three baronies were qualified, no application for the premium was made
from anyone. In 1842, I endeavoured to get up a ploughing-match, and though
I advertised for land could get none. I also, that year, had the prizes
placed at our disposal by the Royal Agricultural Society offered for competition
in the Limerick district alone; and though I circulated the papers largely,
no claim for competition was [Page 20] made. Again, in 1843, I applied
to the local society, and obtained a grant of money for premiums, in addition
to what was given by the Royal Agricultural Society, to be offered for
competition in each poor-law union in the counties of Clare and Limerick.
The union of Ennistimon was the first on the list, and though I sent the
premium sheets to every resident gentleman and clergyman, yet hardly any
notice was given to the small farmers to prepare themselves, and only
a few competitors appeared; nor had it the effect which was intended,
of inducting residents in the union to attempt to form a local society.
One of the reasons that a farming society, whose object is the improvement
of tillage, has not succeeded here is that the gentry generally hold rich
lands, which are kept for pasture, and do not, as a class, feel so direct
a sympathy with those who occupy the waste and poor lands. It is, therefore,
only a few landlords who, taking an interest in the improvement of the
tenantry, would be willing to support such a society; but they, finding
no general interest in the subject, confine their exertions to their own
estates, on which several are engaged in extensive improvements.
James Moloney, esq., land proprietor and deputy
lieutenant of the county Clare.
7. What is the state of agriculture? The state of agriculture is improving
in drainage, and in the growth of artificial grasses, turnips, and mangel-wurzel.
8. Are they being generally introduced into the farms in the district?
Their introduction is as rapid as could possibly have been expected, considering
how few capitals there are equal to the improved mode of tillage.
9. What are the manures principally used? The manures used are, of course,
animal manure, whenever it can be had; sea manure, meaning by that sea-weed,
and sea-weed has become of late much more used than it was formerly; burning
of land, which has been on the decline, except in the instance of coarse
land, the truth being, that most of the grass lands of the country have
been gradually converting into tillage. There are no farming societies,
but some gentlemen have agricultural superintendents.
10. What effect have they produced in the district? I attribute to those
agricultural superintendents the introduction of all the improved methods
Agriculture: Agricultural Schools: Belvoir
David J. Wilson, esq., land proprietor, county
4. In 1836 I recommended the formation of agricultural schools, according
to Captain Kennedy’s plan, and every day tends to convince me, that
it is the primary object we should seek to carry out. I have lately succeeded
in obtaining a competent master for the Belvoir School. The small piece
of land attached to it (three and a half statue acres) is the greater
part of it very poor land, at the foot of a mountain, and with a very
thin surface; the labour in clearing and subsoiling is very great. The
energy, and in most instances, the steadiness, with which the boys labour
is astonishing, and very gratifying; they take a pride in their work,
and watch the progress of the crops with the greatest interest. The little
farm, being in operation only fifteen months, is yet in its infancy; but
I have with me a specimen of mangel-wurzel, grown on a part of it where
the surface was not originally three inches deep, the substratum being
gravel and sand, containing a good deal of oxide of iron. Indeed a more
barren spot, or one presenting greater difficulties, could scarcely have
been chosen; but independent of its contiguity to the school-house, the
difficulty of reclamation was its great recommendation, for if good crops
could, by a proper application of labour, be produced from such land,
it left the tenants possessing a superior soil without any excuse; whereas,
had a good piece of land been selected, the observations would have been,
“It is easy for Mr. Wilson and the master to get good crops off
such land as that; but if he had such land as ours, I’d like to
see what he could do with it.” The boys were to be seen taking away
the plants of Sweedish turnips and mangels, which they had thinned out,
to their homes to transplant them; and I am informed they are succeeding
well. The crops this year consist of potatoes, one acre seven perches;
turnips, twenty-nine perches; mangels, ten and a half perches; cabbage,
three and a half perches; oats, one rood nineteen perches; meadowing,
three roods twenty-nine perches; and the remainder in grass.
Agriculture: Manures: Sea sand and sea-weed
Mr. James Shannon, farmer, county Clare.
4. What is the state of agriculture in the district? In a very backward
state, and not improving, owing to the land being continually under crops;
no drainage, no regular rotation of crops, manures almost entirely sea
sand and drift sea-weed, which was heretofore free to the peasantry, the
patronage being in the crown, but is within these sixteen years monopolized
by the owners of the adjacent lands, to the great detriment of the poor,
and a great bar to the improvement of this mountainy locality; though
in 1823, the government engineer, Mr. Kilally, made a road, which was
to communicate with the bay heads as near as possible. He left a small
[Page 64] distance from his roads to the different bays, for which the
land-owners charged an exorbitant trespass to the peasantry; and this
could be put a stop to by the Board of Public Works, at a small expense
to the country, as no presentment would be granted at road sessions, for
the same short roads, by magistrates who influence the rate-payers. The
government, by taking the prerogative of this weed as their due, and giving
it at a fair price to the peasantry, or gratis, as heretofore, would in
a great measure stop and decrease pauperism, and is now a great grievance
and imposition on the public in general. The communications are kept closed
by the authority of the petty sessions, who grant warrants for trespass.
5. Have there been any decisions in law, or appeals from the petty sessions
court, in respect to the right to sea-weed or sea sand? Yes, there have
been appeals, and I was present when Judge Jackson said, in the town of
Ennis, that sea-weed ought to be free; and at a trial at Cork, he said,
as I saw by the public papers, that sea sand is considered free warren,
and is not included in any patent, and no man has any right to withhold
David J. Wilson, esq., land proprietor, county
12. It gives a good crop of potatoes, a middling crop of wheat, but does
not benefit any, and injures some lands. Relying on the sea-weed, a tenant
is often induced to defer collecting and preparing his manure heap until,
driven to the last moment, he is forced to raise the price of the sea-weed
either from the usurer or the pawnbroker, thus paying a high price for
a bad article.
Agriculture: Stock: House-feeding
Appendix to Land Commission Evidence, No. 92. Table showing
the comparative order of the Amount of Property invested in Live Stock
in each County, in proportion to its extent. From the Census of Ireland,
The Rev. Jeremiah Vaughan, Roman Catholic Clergyman, county Clare.
7. There are some few individuals who are adopting the new system, but
they are all the fee-simple proprietors. I do not know of any [Page 72]
farmers adopting the same system. There may be a few adopting the system
of house-feeding, who may grow green crops, but very few.
Jonas Studdert, esq., land proprietor, farmer, and magistrate,
7. There is little or no house-feeding, except in some very few cases
among the gentlemen, who are very thinly scattered through the country.
Draining and Subsoiling
Colonel Charles Synge, land proprietor.
16. My system is to give no leases. I find a steward at my own expense
for the whole of the tenantry, and oblige them to follow his instructions;
and if they drain according to his instructions, he lays out the drain
for them, and I pay so much per perch for the drain, which is paid in
lime, quite distinct from rent, and paid immediately. I see that the drains
17. What proportion of the expense do you calculate you so allow? I should
think two-thirds of the expense. I allow 2d., and [Page 106] they cost
about 3d. One of the reasons I give no leases is, that I find there is
so little advance in education and science, it would be impossible to
get some of the parties to follow the instructions, if I was to give them
a lease. For instance, two or three days ago, I proposed to drain a man’s
land, and make it good land for him. His answer was: “It bears very
little now, and if you were to take the water off it would bear none at
all.” I consider, if I gave that man a lease, he would do nothing;
he holds thirty acres of land.
18. Is there any other system adopted by any of the other landlords? Yes.
Colonel Wyndham’s system is better than mine; he is rich and can
afford it; I cannot. If a tenant wishes to have his farm drained, he will
send drainers to drain it for him to a certain extent.
19. What proportion of that is borne by the landlord? The whole of it.
These are new takings. I believe he would do so to old tenants.
20. Do you add any per centage for the draining? No. Mine is in its infancy.
In fact, they are so poor I must first see what they can do. I think it
better not to add a percentage to it. If I gave leases, I should.
Draining and subsoiling: Temporary substitute for Furrow-Draining
Letter to the Editor of the Farmers’ Gazette
Belvoir, County Clare, 19th March, 1844
The oat-sowing season having commenced, I beg to recommend to the attention
of such of your readers, being small farmers, as have to deal either with
a cold, wet soil, not yet drained – or a dry soil, which may have
become exhausted by constant cropping, and shallow ploughing – the
following mode of tillage, which I have adopted for two years with the
most complete success: -
I lined out the ground to be tilled in ridges, four feet wide, and furrows
two feet wide. I then dug out the parts lined off for the furrows, and
put on the ridges all the active soil which could be taken up by the spade.
The seed was then sown, and covered by the earth which had remained in
the furrows, and which were for this purpose cleanly shovelled.
By this mode I obtained a dry seed bed in moist ground – a fresh
active soil in exhausted ground – and a depth of surface in light
land. The increased returned in the crops far more than repay for any
little additional labour, or loss in extent of surface (as least I found
it so), for my crops thus tilled were pronounced by a number of competent
judges to be extraordinary, considering the description of land which
produced them, and the circumstances under which they were grown.
In one instance, on a cold, retentive soil, not drained, where there had
been a very poor crop of potatoes the previous year, and the soil not
stirred from the time the potatoes had been dug out, until the oats were
In the other case, a second crop of oats was taken off the same field,
the stubbles having been ploughed in October. This crop was much superior
to the former; it produced fine grain and was so luxuriant, that the greater
part of it was lodged when I called on [Page 107] the gentlemen to view
it, a few days previous to reaping, which was on the 9th of August.
Should the surface or active soil be very shallow, the breadth of the
ridge may be narrowed, or the breadth of the furrow increased. The wide
furrows allow of loosening the subsoil, either with crowbars, picks or
spades and I carefully resolve all stones which appear for drains, where
draining is necessary; and where it is, I now drain, whenever I find the
stones at hand – sometimes before tilling. I make the drains at
forty or sixty feet apart, and put in my intermediate drains in each succeeding
year, as I obtain stones in loosening the subsoil. The drains are run,
according to Mr. Smith’s plan, down the incline, and I now run the
ridges and furrows also down the incline, the two first years of cropping,
instead of diagonally, as in my former plan – splitting the ridges
the second year. The third year I run the ridges and furrows diagonally,
or with a slight incline across the field, sinking the diagonal furrows
two or three inches deeper than those running down the incline, that the
diagonal furrows, which will be the deeper, may receive the water from
the other furrows, and conduct it towards the drains at an angle.
I lay out my ridges for potatoes the same breadth as for oats, and till
according to Mr. Barklie’s plan, putting the sets in rows across
the ridges, five sets in each row, and the rows varying from eighteen
to twenty-one inches apart; thus saving seed, being enabled to hoe and
keep the plants free from weeds, to dig out the potatoes at less cost
without injury, and increasing the produce over the old lazy-bed system,
in the proportion of one-sixth. The greater part of my land having a retentive
substratum, or being exhausted from constant cropping and bad cultivation,
I require all the occupants to till in the above mode – allowing
the full cost for drains and subsoiling.
Mr. Smith never tills until he has obtained a permanent dry seedbed, by
frequent furrow drains. How many thousands of acres are there under cultivation
in Ireland requiring furrow-draining, where, in wet seasons, vast quantities
of seed perish, the land not yielding half a crop. Now, as (even though
we had sufficient capital to employ the entire of our superabundant population
on furrow-draining) it would take several years to drain the land at present
under cultivation, is it not desirable to insure a temporary dry seed-bed,
until we are enabled to obtain one which shall be permanent?
Draining and Subsoiling: Plan for Loosening Subsoil:
Each diagram represents four statute perches. Scale thirty-three feet
to an inch.
Ridges four feet wide to run diagonally, sloping to one side. Furrows
two feet wide to be loosened with either spade or crowbar, according to
the nature of the soil, to the depth of ten or twelve inches. The lighter
the surface the wider the furrows, and consequently the narrower the bar.
The ridge and furrow are reversed by splitting the ridge; the furrow of
the first year forming the centre of the ridge of the second, and the
furrow of the second year being placed in the centre of the ridge of the
first, a mode frequently adopted by the peasantry. The same process of
loosening the soil as before.
Plough in eight, nine, or ten feet courses down the incline, sinking your
drains in every second furrow as narrow as you can, but to the full depth
of two feet and a half, scattering what you take out as widely and lightly
as possible over the adjoining surface. As soon as circumstances permit,
put in the stones or tiles; the cleaning of the bottoms of the drains
and the paring of the sides, will afford sufficient covering. The furrows
which had been loosened occupying two-thirds of the field, the bars one
foot each constituting the other third; thus all incline towards the drains,
the bars acting as conductors for the water.
Draining and Subsoiling
Appendix 30 – Plan for loosening subsoil
a Furrow loosened first year
b Furrow loosened second year
c Bars not disturbed, but will be reduced two or three inches
d Line of surface four inches deep
e Increase of surface two inches obtained from furrow
Take every particle of good soil out of the furrows
before you begin to loosen the subsoil; the increased return in your crop
by the increased depth of surface will more than repay for your trifling
increase of labour and apparent loss of ground by the wide furrows. The
stones thrown up in the tilling should be heaped at the points it is ultimately
intended to run the drains; those thrown up in the subsoiling may remain
in the furrows until the crop is off, and then removed to those points.
To meet the views of those who wish to till in drills, I would plough
in diagonal courses of seven feet, gathering the soil as much as possible
to the centre; then harrow, plough again, leaving three feet in the centre
of the course untouched, but ploughing on both sides of these three feet,
so as to bring the entire course nearly to a level; harrow again, and
clean out your two feet furrow to its proper depth. The courses will then
allow you to open four drills on it; loosen the furrow as before. In the
second year you do not place your furrow in the centre of the course,
but within one foot of the furrow of the former year. By this mode it
takes three years to loosen the subsoil; but as the land will be much
more easily cleaned, it is the process I would prefer.
The cost of loosening subsoil according to this plan will not (strange
as it may appear) in ordinary cases be more than from 10s. to 15s. per
statute acre, calculating labour at 8d. and 10d.a day; and the cottiers
and small farmers will be enabled to accomplish this most desirable end
without capital, without skill, with little labour, while their land is
bearing a crop.
Several acres may be in progress at the same time, and the subsoil exposed
to the atmosphere for six or seven months, counting the period before
and after loosening. So much of the soil is loosened that the furrow drains
are subsequently sunk at very small cost, and the process is performed
at what is called the idle time of the year, and during the long days.
The plan having met the unqualified approval of experienced gentlemen
and Scotch agriculturists, who witnessed the process, and can testify
to the cost, I would urge proprietors to put it in general operation upon
their estates in the ensuing spring, allowing their [Page 110] tenants
one-half, two-thirds, or event the entire of the cost, according to circumstances,
when it is so very trifling, and spread over a period of two years.
And if a doubt could exist upon the success of the plan, it is removed,
for it is now sanctioned by the approbation of that powerful and experienced
advocate for subsoiling, Mr. Smith of Deanston; our only material difference
being that he would first complete the drains, while I would first loosen
the subsoil, as being more suited to the state of the country, and therefore
more likely to be brought into the general operation. But as every suggestion
on the subject coming from him should be almost considered as law, where
proprietors can afford the outlay his advice should be followed. And though
that practical and scientific improver, Captain Kennedy (to whom we all,
whether proprietors or occupiers, owe so much), coincides with Mr. Smith,
my opinion remains unchanged; convinced as I am, from my knowledge of
the country, that for one acre that will be thorough-drained before being
sub-soiled, there will be 100 sub-soiled before being drained. And I would
beg of those who may see objections to parts of my system (and which I
am far from saying may not be well founded), to remember that my primary
object is the Irish cottier. I want to loosen subsoil, and drain in the
speediest and least expensive manner, as being that which will be most
generally adopted throughout Ireland.
Annexed is an extract from the very clear and accurate account of the
experiment, drawn up by William Homley, of Rich Hill, esq., which appeared
in the Farmers’ Gazette, of 16th July, which will show how very
trifling is the expense in ordinary soils:-
“Four men were directed to dig out the subsoil with an even bottom,
and they completed the two perches allotted them in thirteen minutes;
but supposing the average to be fifteen minutes (in a sub-soil with a
hard indurated crust it might be longer), this would be two perches an
hour for one man, or twenty perches for the day of ten hours; twenty perches,
being half a rood, multiplied by eight will give 160 perches, or one statute
acre. Thus it will take eight days from one man to finish one acre of
the first year’s, which at 8d. a day, the wages of the locality,
will come to 5s. 4d.; and the price of executing the furrows of the second
year being 5s. 4d. more, will make a total of 10s. 8d. as the expense
of one statute acre.”
D. J. Wilson 1842
Thomas Crowe, esq., agent.
107. Colonel Wyndham has instructed a number of men in draining; and he
sends them free of all expense to the tenants, in different parts of the
county, and leaves them with them till their land is drained, without
any expense or increase of rent, except that he asks them to cart the
stones to the spot where the drains are to be, and break them and put
108. Do you find the tenants desirous of having the assistance of those
drainers? Very desirous.
Papers delivered in by D. J. Wilson., esq., referred to in Minutes of
Evidence, No. 625. Q. 7.
To the Editor of the Farmers’ Gazette
Belvoir, 8 December, 1843
In compliance with your wishes I have endeavoured to give an explanation
of my plan of a cheap cottage for a cottier, the model of which was exhibited
at the late meeting in Belfast. The want of capital prevents some landlords
– the want of energy, others – from turning their attention
to the improvement of the houses of their tenantry, but by far the greater
number of us are prevented by a dread of the expense to be incurred, in
providing what would be considered even moderate accommodation for a cottier’s
family. To meet this difficulty has been my object; and I beg to place
in your hands the accompanying model and plans, for the inspection of
such proprietors as take an interest in the condition of their tenantry,
and may be desirous of contributing to their comforts, at what, it is
hoped, will prove (for the accommodation to be afforded) a very moderate
outlay. What I try to attain are, separate sleeping-places for the family,
instead of having all its members crowded into one room, sometimes into
one bed – a warm pig-sty, to prevent the custom of bringing the
sow into the house at the time of farrowing – a warm hen-house,
to dispense with roosts over the kitchen door-ways – another place
for the milk than the kitchen or bed-room – a small store-room –
a place for two cows; and a northern gentleman having suggested that a
place for a loom would be desirable, at a very small additional expense
I give a room for that purpose, ten feet by eight.
The length of the house in the clear, it will be observed, is but 23½
feet – its breadth but 14 feet – height 9 feet. The kitchen
is 14 feet by 12 feet; the bed-room (or loom-room as the case may be)
10 feet by 8; both dairy and store-room (to be divided at pleasure) occupy
but 10 feet by 4 feet 8 inches, the height of the room is 7½ feet.
1 floor over the bed-room, dairy, and store-room, and get two additional
sleeping-places, by running a boarded partition ½ inch thick, and
8 feet high, from the centre of the gable-end window, towards the kitchen.
On the wall running across the house, separating the bed-room and store-room
from the kitchen, I place a wall plate, and from it, to the roof, run
up slight poles, at 18 inches apart, between which I weave rods of hazel,
or sallow, and thus form a partition, separating these sleeping-places
from the kitchen, leaving an ope of 3 feet in the centre, and immediately
opposite the window in the gable. From this ope, a landing 3 feet long,
and 2 feet wide, extends into the kitchen, up to which is placed a subdivided
step-ladder, 2 feet wide, with a hand-rail, by which an easy access, even
for children, is afforded to these sleeping-places.
Jonas Suddert, esq., land proprietor and magistrate.
40. You have said that there is a want of leases, which is a bar to improvement;
do you think that that evil would be in any degree remedied, if there
was a provision by law, that the tenant making improvements of a permanent
nature, by building, or extensive draining, should be sure of being repaid
for those improvements if he was turned out? I am sure that would have
a most beneficial effect, particularly where the generality of the tenants
have to deal with absent landlords. They have no confidence whatever in
doing any thing. It would be the most excellent law that could be. It
might not be necessary where the tenant was acquainted with the honour
of the landlord; but in this country it would be most beneficial. I have
known where there are grazing farms – roads made through the farms
– where the tenant has no interest but from year to year, and paying
very heavy rates. If a road is made through it, it is detrimental to him
in the highest degree; but he gets no compensation by law for breaking
up his ground. I do not think in any instance, as to roads, that a landlord
takes that into consideration. He says, “You are compelled to do
it; it is for the good of the country, and I will not give you a thing.”
The Rev. Malachi Duggan, Roman Catholic clergyman. 608
12. You have stated that, in your opinion, tenancy-at-will diminishes
the amount of rent the people would be disposed to give; [Page 176] what
effect has it upon the condition of the tenants, or the improvement of
their farms? It paralyzes the industry of the tenantry, for I know in
the last thirty-two years I have known many turned out; after improving
the condition of their holdings, and building handsome houses, they were,
for some cause or other, turned out, and I remember in one instance it
did injury to the whole population. A poor man built a nice dwelling-house;
he had no lease. The farm was given to a middleman, and he took a fancy
to the house, and he picked a quarrel with the man, and threw him out
on the highway. He built himself the house, and his wife died, and the
man himself died.
13. What was the name of the man? Crotty.
14. How long ago was that? About twelve years. There was no improvement
made in my parish for eight or nine years afterwards, for everybody liked
the house; it was a pretty thing, and paved all round, and back offices
built next to it. We have at the present moment a better order of things
established. Mr. Nicholas Westby, of London, divided the land of the tenantry
into divisions, and put each man’s division by itself, and reduced
the rent so low that they could not complain if they got leases at the
William Daxon, esq. agent and farmer.
54. Have they sufficient capital for the increased size of their farms?
Generally they have not.
55. How do they supply that want? By attention and labour. They are obliged
to go to the banks at the recommendation of some gentlemen, who will represent
them as honest and proper people: they get £15 or £20 at six
William Daxon, esq., farmer.
38. Do the tenants hold generally by lease or from year to year? Generally
from year to year now; previous to this they used to [Page 272] get leases,
but in consequence of the disturbed state of the country the landlords
do not give leases now.
39. Is there any anxiety on the part of the tenants for leases at their
present rents? Yes; there are no tenants I think who would reject a good
lease at their present rents.
40. What effect has the mode of tenure upon the condition of the tenants,
or the improvement of their farms? I saw districts yesterday in a most
astonishing state for want of tenure; they were not worth a shilling an
acre, and on the other side of the ditch there was as nice land as I saw
between this and that, and that is forty miles – only on the other
side of the ditch; but there they had leases.
Rev. Malachi Duggan, parish priest.
10. Do the tenants in general hold by lease, or from year to year? From
year to year. We have not many leases at all.
11. Is there an anxiety for leases, in your opinion, on the part of the
people, at the present rate of rent? They would rather have leases and
pay a high rent, than have the land without a lease at a low rent. The
reason is, when they have leases they have credit, they have a stake in
the country, and can get money from the banks; but when they have no lease
they have no credit in the country, and when they die their widow is likely
to be turned out. I think it much better for the people to get the money
from the banks rather than the country usurers. In dealing with the banks
they are very punctual, but in dealing with the usurers, the interest
is so high they cannot pay interest and principal; the interest is often
fifty per cent.
David John Wilson, esq., land proprietor.
7. The tenure has been generally by lease for lives or years, but latterly
most settings are at will. The covenants are usually against subletting
or subdividing; attempts to enforce covenants but rarely succeed. I have
found, by experience, that leases are positive bars to improvement, however
low the rent; and I hand in several cases as proving my assertion. I now
give no leases, and more has been done in the way of improvement within
the last fourteen months than had previously been in the last fourteen
years, when leases existed, as agricultural report books will show.
Tenant Right, or Sale of Good-Will
G. O’Callaghan, esq., land proprietor.
50. Is the sale of the good-will of farms at all known in this country?
It occurs; but it always occurs without the knowledge of the landlord.
It occurs in the cases of emigration generally. There are very few instances
55. Was there any compensation given to the parties turned out, or what
became of them? In some cases they were encouraged to emigrate. Colonel
Wyndham, on his estate, shipped them off to Canada, such as were disposed
to go; but numbers of them would not go, and to those who would not go
he gave a compensation in money.
John Patrick Molony, esq., land proprietor.
41. Does the sale of the good-will of farms prevail in the district? Indeed
42. Is it recognised by the landlords? Generally the sale of the good-will
of farms occurs where the poor tenant gets into arrear, and is unable
to pay. The landlord cannot afford to lose the money, and he allows the
man to sell his good-will to a man who will pay up the rent, and the tenant
puts something in his pocket going out.
43. In case the landlord took the land for his own use, would the custom
of the country require him to pay the tenant in the same way an acreable
sum for the good-will? No
Thomas Crowe, esq., agent.
60. In the course of those proceedings was there any
understanding held out to the people, that those who purchased from their
neighbours, and so raised their farms, were to be continued as tenants?
No, there was no promise of the kind; they used, for peace sake, to get
a great deal of money, besides what I gave them. I was present when a
person receiving £10 from me before he left the land got £30,
and all for peace sake. The person I was to give the land to, for peace
sake, gave him a sum of money to get the good-will.
61. Was there any understanding, or any thing held out from your office,
that those who purchased out the holdings of others would thereby acquire
a title to the land? No; on the contrary, we did not suffer any such agreement
to be made; if it was made, it was without knowledge.
62. Was there any expectation held out to those who paid the arrears of
rent to the middleman, that they would be continued if they did so? Never.
On the contrary, we set our faces against any dealings of the kind between
the parties in that way.
Mr. John Horan, farmer.
23. Have there been any agrarian outrages in the district? Very few, except
where a man was turned out of a farm. In one parish there was one that
was in consequence of the landlord, when he got into possession, turning
out the tenants; and a man was murdered there some time ago – a
life was lost. The man had between thirty and forty acres of land. He
was not satisfied with that, but [Page 342] turned out twenty or thirty
for the sake of getting all the land to himself, and that man was murdered.
24. When did this take place? About six years ago.
Mr. Benjamin Cox, farmer.
57. With respect to the condition of the farming population, are the larger
class of farmers getting better in the world? Of this class there are
few in the district; their condition is rather comfortable.
58. Are the small tenantry getting better off? For the most part their
condition is very low, and not getting better.
63. By what means are the younger children provided for at the death of
their parents? There is no certain provision for children who have lost
their parents; we have not much custom of dividing the farms among the
children. The farms are not leased, and if the father dies, the widow
generally takes the management of the farm under a high profession of
affection for her children, and very soon gets married, and the children
are thrown upon the world; that is the case in nine instances out of ten.
David John Wilson, esq., land proprietor.
12. With respect to the condition of the farming population, do you consider
that the large farmers are improving in their circumstances? The condition
of graziers and large farmers, I should say, is decidedly improved. I
know instances in which respectable and even large capitals have been
accumulated from very small means. The small tenantry are to a very little
extent improved - in many instances not at all so; and all, I conceive,
owing to the want of a proper system of cultivation and house-feeding,
and which became the more necessary as the population increased, and the
ground became impoverished by constant cropping. From the impetus now
given, I anticipate an improvement of the small tenantry; and that of
the labourer, I look upon it, must follow. Children are generally put
among their friends on the death of their parents. I have eleven or twelve
widows on my property, and those who hold land are some of the very best
tenants I have. Tenants of small holdings are, in general, the labourers
employed by the gentry, and hold directly from them.
Subdivision of Farms
John P. Molony, esq., land proprietor.
52. Does the subletting or subdividing of farms still continue? Yes, indeed
53. Is it permitted by the landlords? Not where they can prevent it: but
it is generally done without being brought under the eye of the landlord,
and sometimes in consequence of a man having a large farm – as his
children marry off he gives them a portion of it. If he has eight or ten
acres he will give one son four or five, and another thee, and in that
Consolidation of Farms
James Molony, esq., land proprietor, magistrate and deputy-lieutenant.
17. The consolidation of farms is carrying out to a very great extent
in this neighbourhood. Encouragement to emigration, or by gratuities,
is given in several cases. In other cases, no compensation has been given.
The general consequences of consolidation of farms have been great distress
and poverty among those who have been turned out.
18. Do you consider, with your experience, that a tenant going from a
small holding of five or six acres at once, to a twenty-acre farm, without
an increase of capital, is likely to do much good to himself? The reverse;
he can do no good to himself nor to his landlord. If a landlord proposes
to consolidate farms, he must find capital to work the extra quantity
of land he puts into the hands of one tenant. I would add here to this,
that where this consolidation [Page 459] of farms takes place on the estate
of an absentee proprietor, distress is produced always upon the few resident
George O’Callaghan, esq., land proprietor.
51. Has there been any consolidation of farms in the district? Very considerable.
52. With what object, and by what means accomplished? With the object
of getting rid of the dense population on the farms, and with the object
of enabling those who remain to be more comfortable.
53. To what size are the farms increased? They have been increased from
five to twenty acres.
54. Do you mean that they were five before, and now are twenty? Yes.
55. Was there any compensation given to the parties turned out, or what
became of them? In some cases they were encouraged to emigrate. Colonel
Wyndham on his estate, shipped them off to Canada, such as were disposed
to go; but numbers of them would not go, and to those who would not go
he gave a compensation in money.
56. How had that dense population been introduced upon his property? There
were large tracts of land that had been in the hands of middlemen, and
he bought them. There is a very large tract between me and Mr. Molony’s
residence, I should suppose 1,200 or 1,300 acres; that operation was carried
Thomas Crowe, esq., agent.
24. Since Lord Egremont’s death, when any large tract has fallen
out of lease what has been the course taken? Colonel Wyndham was desirous
to increase the holdings to the respectable portion of the tenantry, and
he removed these paupers and small holders, and added to those he thought
would be good tenants.
25. To what extend did he generally carry the farms he enlarged? That
depended upon the number that happened to be on the land. He reduced the
number left on each farm according to its extent.
26. Was there any particular sized farm it was his wish to create? He
would be anxious to give them each about twenty acres, if he was able
to accomplish it, but he was not, such was the opposition he met with.
27. What did he accomplish? Sometimes ten, and sometimes twenty; and some
more, and some less.
28. Did he take any particular course of inquiry as to the time that the
small tenants had been upon the land, or any claim from any circumstance
they might have to be continued in the land, or what guided him in the
selection? The small holders and the poorer tenants, he paid them all
upon going out.
29. Have any farms been re-let under ten acres? Yes, I believe there have
been some, about seven acres or thereabouts.
30. What was the largest quantity of land held by a tenant ejected? I
am not able to answer you particularly. I know they were all small.
31. Were any ejected who held eight acres? Not that I recollect, unless
they were paupers, and broken tenants, and it was necessary to remove
34. It was not with reference to the number of acres a man held, but according
to his circumstances and his means, that you decided? Yes; because if
his means were not good, we would not keep him.
35. What means did you take to ascertain the relative circumstances or
means of the different tenants? I made every inquiry upon the subject,
and examined them upon the spot, as far as I could, and obtained information
36. Who did you employ to obtain that information? No one, only the persons
upon the premises.
37. Were there any persons in your employment? No. I got the best information
I could collect from people I thought I could depend upon. There was such
a number of people, we could not keep them all.
38. Have you any objection to state to the commissioners what was the
instruction, or what was the scheme laid down by Colonel Wyndham, upon
which to remodel the estate? The scheme was, to increase the holdings
to the respectable tenantry, and to remunerate those going out, who did
not give opposition to him.
39. On what scale was that remuneration fixed and regulated? Two pounds
an acre, up to five acres.
40. That was £2 an acre, not exceeding £10? Yes.
41. If a man was removed, though he held more than five acres, he only
received £10? Yes. He offered also, if they chose to emigrate, he
would send them there at no expense to themselves, and give £2 to
an adult to take him up the country, and give them clothing for their
children, and pay for their provisions, and pay for their passage; and
if they chose to go to Upper Canada, he would recommend them to a gentleman
there to look after them, and to endeavour to get them employment.
42. Was that in lieu of £2 an acre? Yes.
43. Was there any allowance in money for children? No.
44. What means were taken to communicate those terms to the tenants upon
the estate? I communicated it to them regularly, and they knew it as well
as I did.
45. How many tenants were removed altogether from the estates of Colonel
Wyndham, under this arrangement, with this offer? A great many; I do not
46. Were there 100? Yes, a good many more. The first year he began, a
number went of their own free will. I do not remember the number, but
it was more than 200 who accepted the money.
47. What number of the persons removed, accepted the offer of going to
America? I believe more accepted the offer of the money than went to America.
48. Did more than 50 accept the offer of going to America? I can tell
the number of persons who accepted the offer of money; I cannot tell how
many went to America. I have about 200 here that accepted the compensation.
49. That 200 does not include those that went to America? No.
50. Can you give any idea of the extent of the land to which this system
applied? Yes; some thousand acres. There was one townland of 1,700 acres
51. From this payment of £2 an acre, was any deduction made? [Page
461] Yes, a deduction was made from those that were in arrear, up to a
certain time, and then the rest of the rent was forgiven them.
52. Up to what time? Sometimes leaving half a year’s rent due, and
at other times a year’s, where I thought they were more distressed;
some owed two years, or three years, which we never got.
53. What proportion of those £2 an acre actually remained in the
hands of the out-going tenant? That depended on the amount of rent due.
54. Was there a deduction made from the man who had only one acre? No,
I do not think there was. I do not remember such a thing as a reduction
in that case.
55. In some instance an apparent allowance of £10 might amount in
effect to the payment of only £1, if a man owed £9 rent? It
never went to that extent. When it went to that, we gave them the whole
money, and never looked after the rent, nor any thing else.
56. How long has this system been in operation? Since 1838.
57. Has it been carried out as far as it was contemplated? No, not at
all. It has not been as far as was contemplated. Whether we shall proceed
I do not know.
58. Among the number of people who received payment from you, at the rate
you have mentioned, are you able to state at all what became of them generally,
whether many of them got land? Yes, a great many of them, that I knew
59. From other proprietors? Yes, or from persons under the proprietors
Cornelius O’Brien, esq., M.P., land proprietor.
47. Has any consolidation of farms taken place to any great extent in
this district? No, I do not think it has occurred in this neighbourhood;
but it has in others. I can give an instance where it would be better
to set it out in small quantities. I think it was about the year 1810,
I found upon two farms three families upon each farm, holding in common
about forty acres in each farm. The families increased, and the children
increased; and when the lease was out, I determined there should be only
one house upon each division. I divided each of those farms into ten-acre
divisions, and some of the divisions less than that – the smallest
division was six acres. That increased the number of divisions; but they
are held by separate bounds, not mixed up; and I found that the man who
had six acres to himself was much more comfortable after a few years than
the man who had twenty before, though paying a higher acreable rent. Those
persons had their land mixed up; they had an acre here and there, and
another on the outside; that was the way they divided it; it was held
in common and rundale; and they had no inducement to treat the land properly,
because in that sort of division they might be ousted, and they did not
Marcus Keane, esq., agent.
14. Has any system been pursued for encouraging improvements of a permanent
nature upon any one of those properties? I have myself made greater changes
in the management of the cottier tenants in the county of Clare than have
been made by any body [Page 462] else. The farms were hitherto (and are
up to this day, where the changes have not been made) held by tenants
in several different divisions scattered over the district, some divisions
being as far as a mile distant from other divisions. In some cases, one
man held so many as ten, twelve, or fourteen divisions; and it has been
my business to go through the estates and divide them out again, giving
to each tenant his holding in one lot, of a convenient size, and extending
to the high road; and I have found the effects of it to be of much greater
benefit than I had anticipated even myself. I consider that part of the
property which has been so divided to be worth one-fourth more than it
was before, and to produce one-third more than it did before the division
took place. The industry of the tenant is stimulated by his having his
farm immediately under his own eye; and his exertions are increased, and
so in proportion he becomes wealthy: the land is worked very much better.
I commenced first upon a small scale; but I have done several thousand
acres; and I am now engaged in doing it in several other parts of the
15. Have you encountered much opposition in doing it? Yes, I did at first,
from the fear of the people (the fear of a change); but of late the people
themselves wish to have the changes made.
16. Can you take upon yourself to speak positively from your experience
that the people, in proportion as they have seen the good effects of the
alteration, have been disposed to acquiesce in it? Yes, most certainly.
There was one case of a large farm of 1,000 acres held among 200 tenants
nearly, and they gave me much opposition. It was two years before I completely
satisfied them all, and satisfied myself; and it is a common expression
now, that they are more comfortable than they can mention – that
they are rendered comfortable in spite of themselves. And among the tenants
upon many thousand acres, whose farms I have so divided, I do not know
more than two or three who complain that they have not as good a division
as they had before. The value of the land was so much increased, that
though a man’s holding might be of less extent than before, it is
of more value to himself; and they are more content with ten acres now
than they were before with a larger holding.
17. In performing this operation, have you had occasion to remove many
persons, or to bring in any new persons upon the land? I never brought
a new person upon the land, and I have generally found that the land is
quite enough for the tenants upon it – of course there are exceptions;
but there is so much to be done upon cottier farms, and so much labour
to be expended before they can be brought into good condition, that I
do not see the great necessity for removing tenants; though, as a choice,
I would rather have some of them removed, if it could be done without
cruelty, and with their own consent. But my employers are men who do not
wish to enrich themselves at the expense of the feelings of the poor;
and where it can be avoided, they do not wish to turn people out.
18. Have you been constantly resident in the country, and superintending
these operations? Yes, it is all done under my [Page 463] superintendence.
I go and walk over the whole farm, and lay out the plan of operations
upon maps, and leave it to some intelligent men, chosen from the farm,
to judge, as between the tenants, the different complements of land which
may be necessary to remunerate them for the land they had before; and
that is rather done among the tenants themselves, with the assistance
of intelligent men, and with my own assistance (of course, subject to
the control I always reserve to myself of deciding); but it is done among
themselves by arbitrators, instead of being done arbitrarily by me.
19. What do you mean by cottier tenants? Men holding very small portions
of land, perhaps under fifteen acres, and residing in cottages.
Burton Bindon, esq., land proprietor and tenant.
8. What is the rate of wages you pay? The more general wages I paid was
8d.; then I reduced it, according to the currency, to 7d. I give 7d. to
the men and 4d. to the women, with the exception of another description
of work, in which I am deeply engaged on the sea shore; and with respect
to that description of work, the women come in at eleven o’clock,
and remain till two, for which they get 3d., at the rate of 1d. the hour;
and many of them often travel several miles in order to earn that 3d.
9. What is the employment of which you are now speaking? The oyster trade.
I first commenced it in order to get employment for the people. Now I
employ a good many from the 1st of September to the 1st of May.
10. Is that in collecting oysters? Yes; from the time you leave Tralee
up to Belmullet, there is scarcely a man who is not more acquainted with
me than his own landlord. I have been often the medium of upwards of 2,000
people being at work along the coast in that part of Ireland, besides
what I employ myself at home.
11. You have spoken of a number of people depending upon mock land; in
what condition are they generally? They are in a wretched state, no one
having a blanket of any kind; and their children are perfectly naked.
George O’Callaghan, esq., land proprietor.
64. Are the labourers, in your opinion, getting richer? No, they are in
the most wretched condition. They are completely out of employment for
four months in the year, sometimes five.
65. What is the rate of wages when they can procure employment? Eightpence
a day, without diet.
James Molony, esq., land proprietor and deputy lieutenant.
18. The con-acre system, known in this country by the
name of mock ground (whence the denomination comes I do not know), prevails
extensively, but from various causes the ground applicable to con-acre
has become so scarce as not to meet the demand. I must say for myself,
the origin of agrarian outrages very much arises from the want of the
con-acre land; and the lower orders of the people conceive that the farmers
and landed proprietors ought to make sacrifices to give them the means
of subsistence, for which they are unable to pay, because their labour
is not required on the farms, the former having the usual set of labourers
sufficient for his purpose. The price of con-acre land varies from £3
10s. to £8 per Irish acre, from £2 to £5 the English
acre; the high rate is where permission is given to burn, or where the
farmer furnishes the manure. The quantity of grass land applicable to
burning has decreased, while the population has increased. Stubble ground
fetches £2 10s. an acre ready money. This description of land used
to be given rent free, and ready ploughed, to persons who had dung to
put upon it. Payment of con-acre rent is recovered by distress and sale
of the potatoes or by civil bill process.
County of Clare: This county contains altogether about 296,000 acres of
unimproved land, the principal part of which is situated to the west of
a line drawn from Corofin by Ennis to the river Fergus. The subsoil of
this tract consists generally of a cold clay; and the surface is, for
the most part, covered by shallow bog. The greater part of the waste lands
of this district are capable of improvement, either for cultivation or
by draining for pasture. The more elevated waste lands, situated in the
mountain district to the north and south of the valley of Scariff, being
those which must be considered of a doubtful character as a theatre for
improvement; but these latter views must be confined to the lands which
are [Page 583] situated near the summits of the mountains at considerable
elevations above the level of the sea. On the whole, the county of Clare
contains about 296,000 acres of unimproved land; of which 60,000 acres
might be improved and cultivated; 100,000 acres might be drained for pasture;
and 136,000 acres must be considered as incapable of improvement.
William Daxon, esq., farmer and land agent.
67. Have you any suggestions of any measures of improvement in the law
and practice regarding the occupation of land? There is an immense tract
of waste land; we have as much barren land as is producing food at present.
Our county is about 450,000 acres; of that we have 150,000 mountain and
bog; about 200,000 producing green crops; the remainder is under stock
and meadowing. I would propose to have the land drained and allotted out
to a number of tenants who are obliged to go to America now; and I would
propose to have a certain fund produced in some mode, to give them an
opportunity of setting to work under a proper engineer, and to repay this
loan by instalments.
68. Are you aware of any attempts having been made to take land in, or
to improve land? I saw twelve acres of land the day before yesterday,
which, in my recollection, was not worth 1s. an acre, and now producing
£6 an acre. I have land myself that was not worth 1s. an acre but
to grow sedges upon, and it is now as good as any land I have.
69. How was that reclaimed? By draining, and paring the land afterwards,
and well treating it.
70. Is there much land of that kind in the country? Yes; there is not
a bog we have in this country that is not from 50 to 150 feet above the
level of the sea, and all these bogs have rivers running through them;
and if canals were made, they could be drained, and when they were drained,
the thing would be over.
71. Is there clay near there? Yes, these bogs are surrounded by hills
of clay, and very high hills of clay too, but it would be done much better
under and engineer; our men do not understand it.
72. Are there many farms that are held by large proprietors? No; there
are twenty acres of arable, and ground sufficient for the stock to be
upon; then there are fifty or sixty acres of bog given in with this; the
part above is not reckoned in the rent; the bogs are not charged for;
and there is quite sufficient disposition to bring this bog into a state
of culture, if there was capital, for the residences are quite near enough
to it. The only other suggestion I have is, to find employment for the
people, and till they are employed they will never be quiet. I am acquainted
with most parts of this county, Tipperary, and Limerick, and I see a want
of employment almost every where; there is not a strong farmer’s
house, or gentleman’s house, in twenty miles from this to Milltown.
There are four or five excellent mansions now vacant in Clare. I think
in many cases the tenants of absentees are better off than others, and
invariably the land is set better for its value. I think the principal
cause of outrage in this country is the want of employment.
Mr. Thomas Gibson, farmer.
4. There is a great deal of waste land in the country near me. If the
legislature could make any enactment as to the waste land, to give employment,
it would do a great deal of good.
5. What enactment would you consider necessary? The land being taken by
commissioners into their own hands, by arrangement with the landlords,
and laying out capital, it would repay fifty or 100 per cent.
6. Have many improvements been made in the district
in the mountain land? I have a good deal of mountain land on my farm,
and have laid out a good deal. My landlord is Mr. Westby, of London. He
gives a good deal of encouragement. He gives the land at the value in
the first place, and then he has given me an abatement of £40 a
year, besides paying me my improvements. A great deal of land could be
reclaimed at about £5 an acre, which is not worth more than 1s.
7. To what value have you raised that land, in your opinion? The part
I reclaimed is the very best part. It is worth 30s. an acre. It was not
8. In how many crops do you consider that that outlay was repaid you?
My plan is, first, to burn the mountain land, then put down rape, then
I take two crops of potatoes and a crop of corn, and lay it down with
9. How long was it before you broke it up again? Some of it has not been
out twenty years, but I have used it for meadow. It requires top dressing
in nine or ten years. The top dress has been [Page 616] lime. I burn a
good deal of lime and mix it with compost, and top dress it; and then
I have a new one again.
10. When you planted it with potatoes did you put any thing on it? I put
dung, and lime, and ashes for the rape, and dung and lime for the potatoes.
11. Has much land been reclaimed in that way in that neighbourhood? No,
except small spots, an acre or so, by poor tenants. They have not capital
in the country. The land is very spewy. We are obliged to sink drains
three feet deep in the hard ground. I am sometimes obliged to sink six
feet in bog.
Philip Reade, esq., land proprietor.
125. Have you made any estimate of the cost of your improvement, and what
you consider a return for it? Yes, I have; the land I improved in the
counties of Galway and Clare amounted to upwards of 500 acres; I speak
now of statue acres; a considerable tract of it was valued, by sworn commissioners
appointed by the court of Chancery, to me as worth 2s. to 6s. an acre;
it is now worth 20s. an acre at a modern rent.
126. What has been the cost of that improvement? I divide it into two
classes; the cost of reclaiming moorland and the cost of reclaiming high
mountain land. The cost of reclaiming the moorland, including the manure
and the seed to be put into the ground for the first crop, came to from
£9-5s. to £10-2s., the highest. The cost of reclaiming in
a very perfect manner the mountain and wood land, putting in the crop,
and all the other attendant expenses, manure and every thing else, came
to £17-7s. The produce on the moorland of the first crop, which
was potatoes, in every instance amounted, at 1½ d. a stone, to
£8-10s; and at 2d., £11-6s-8d, per acre, thus covering the
expense of reclaiming the moorland in the first year; 8½ tons of
potatoes to the acre, I consider, on the average, was the produce. On
the upland, which was mixed with wood, it became extremely difficult to
reclaim it on that account, and the expense of reclaiming, as I mentioned
before, was £17-7s; the first crop; at 1½d., amounted to
£19-11s-6d. Thus also, in that instance, covering the expense in
the very first crop. The return is very enormous and surprising, the quantity
produced being 3,136 stones on the average, amounting to 19 tons 12 cwt.
127. What is the difference between the mountain and the moorland? Moorland
I consider to be where the subsoil within the reach of cultivation is
still moor; the other is hard, generally strong subsoil. On the moorland,
the trenching by statue acre was from ten to fifteen shillings; this was
all done with the spade; the draining 160 [Page 669] perches to the acre,
from £2 to 50s. the manure was thirty tons, at 2s-6d. a ton, £3-15s;
the seed was from £1-5s to £1-10s; the expense of putting
in the crop and carrying it was £1-15s; that, according to the highest
and lowest prices, amounted to from £9-5s to £10-2s. Now,
with regard to the upland, the draining, subsoiling, or digging a second
pit, and opening drains, was done by task-work; the person taking the
one was obliged to take the other, for it facilitated the labour; eighty
perches of drains to the acre. The whole of these works was at the rate
of £16 an Irish acre, which is £9-12s the English acre. Filling
and covering the eighty perches of drains I calculated at £1; the
stones were on the spot; manure the same as for the moorland, £3-15s;
the seed the same, from 25s. to 30s.; and the labour £1-15s. The
reason that labour is not higher is, that ploughs were able, when the
land was cleared of stones, to do some of the work. That is the most expensive
reclamation I have ever practised myself, and it was the most profitable.
The second year, the same land was marled with Shannon marl, a very fine
description of manure – thirty loads, which I calculated at 1s.
a load; we had it very close to us. The total cost of the second year
amounts to £6-7s-6d. an acre; the moorland is £1 higher, that
is, £7-7s-6d. This is the usual course of farming; there is nothing
extra. The produce was very great. On the moorland I take it at the same
as the first year, but the potatoes are of a better description. In the
first year, the crop produced is never fit for human food, they are too
soft. In the second year, they are perfectly good for human food, and
are worth 2d. a stone, at the least; the produce the same as the year
before would give £11-6s-8d., at that price. I consider £8-10s
is the safest to take as the value of crop for the first year. The reason
that the moorland costs £1 more the second year is, that we are
obliged to use spade labour.
128. What was the produce on the mountain land? I took that the same as
the year before, £19-12s, which, at 2d. a stone, produces £26-2s.
129. You valued them at 1½ d. a stone before? Yes, producing £19-11s-6d.
The third year, on my own system of reclamation, the crop was oats and
grass seeds, and additional drains, if required, the cost of seed and
labour £2-10s., the produce was £9. I take this as the same
in both descriptions of land, it may be something better upon the upland,
the profit was £6-10s., and I have made this note: “The tenant
may and does execute the same work infinitely lower.” The first
crop produced from maiden land is always extraordinary, if properly drained,
in my experience never again to be equalled by any effect of manuring.
Sometimes the rotation, according to the nature of the land, was, first
crop, rape or potatoes; second crop, oats; third crop, turnips or potatoes;
and the fourth crop, oats; with grass seeds, according to the character
of the land.
130. Is there any great extent of land in that country susceptible of
being improved upon equally favourable terms? I should say, there are
200 square miles capable of being improved. I do not mean to say upon
equally favourable terms.
131. Was the moorland low or high? Low; it was regular bog, but not red
bog; it was of a blackish, moorish nature, but still of a great depth.
132. Could you cut turf upon it? Yes; but it was of a moory nature.
133. What name would you give to the districts? The Sleive Boughta range
134. What are the particular reasons which prevent that land from being
reclaimed? The want of spirit in the proprietors; nothing else.
135. Was your reclamation the cause of giving much employment in the neighbourhood?
136. How many acres do you think you have reclaimed in any one year? Thirty-five
is the greatest quantity. I generally employ fourteen or fifteen sets
of men at task-work. I have as many at this moment.
137. Is the district to which you have alluded opened by roads? Latterly,
it has been a good deal.
138. How have those roads been made? When I went to that country, there
was but one road of any description, and there were no bridges to it;
it went over every hill which could be selected, and it was utterly impassable
for any wheeled carriage. I got surveys made, in consequence of a circular
sent to the different proprietors; they all promised to assist me. I employed
an eminent engineer, and got surveys made of the lines of road necessary
to open it. I then came before the grand jury of Galway, and they very
liberally did their part, although there was some opposition; and having
so completed it, I handed it over to the Board of Works for execution;
the government having agreed to advance half the money.
139. Was the money advanced as a grant or a loan? It was advanced as a
grant in that instance.
140. Has all the money advanced by the Board of Works for roads in that
district been by way of grant? No, not half of it. Some of the proprietors
repaid me; indeed, I should say all of them, except the greatest, and
he left me to pay my share and his own; I shall not name him.
141. Is there still a want of roads in the neighbourhood? Very considerable.
That was the main line from Portumna to Mountshannon.
142. Is that the road you are alluding to? Yes. I have opened short roads
through my own estate, for some of which the county of Galway gave me
2s. a perch. The rest of the expense I paid out of my own pocket. The
county of Clare is extensively opened by roads, or a portion of it; but
there were none of them passing within seven miles of the Shannon, except
this one. They are all lateral roads; there is no cross roads, so that
the country is only partially opened, and does not communicate with the
Shannon, except at the extreme ends of the lines of road.
143. Do any of the new roads which have been opened in that district,
communicate from the interior of the country to the Shannon? No, very
few, indeed. It should be opened by cross lines from the mountains to
the Shannon; and I may say that these 200 square miles of country have
no cross road whatever to get to the Shannon, and the people are obliged
to go to either end of those roads to do so.
144. Does that district belong to many different proprietors? There are
several, but not many; there are half-a-dozen.
145. Has any of the money advanced for the roads to which you have referred,
between Clare and Galway, been given a grant by the Board of Works? Yes.
146. Has the greater portion been given by the way of grant or loan? My
impression is, that the greater part has been by way of loan.
147. Will you state in what proportion the expense of maintaining the
road has been borne by the county and the barony? In every instance, the
expense of making a road has been borne by the barony; but the expense
of maintaining it is laid on the county.
148. I believe it is all included in one barony? Yes.
149. Does not the expense fall very heavily upon the barony? No, I think
not; it was divided into twelve repayments; it did not fall very heavily.
150. Are you aware of the regulation under which the Board of Works have
been recently advancing sums of money for making roads of this kind, where
the proprietors give an equal sum? I am.
151. Do you think that such a system could be advantageously carried out
in so wild a district, or would it be necessary to make an absolute grant?
I think the system adopted by the Board of Works exceedingly bad; all
roads for whatever purposes throughout these mountains are made as if
they were great mail coach roads, with levels almost perfect, by cutting
and embanking at a great expense, generally the contracting price was
£1 a perch, or one guinea a perch, which is altogether too high
for the value of the land through which it runs, or for the proprietors
to subscribe to. If the roads were made of a less expensive description,
so as to be somewhat equivalent to the value of the land in the country
through which they went, and afterwards, in case of very extensive traffic
running upon them, improved to a better description, it would be a great
improvement on the system. At this moment, I have a road making through
my own property, for which the grant jury of Galway granted me 6s.-9d.
a perch, upon condition of getting 6s.-9d. from the Board of Works, and
making up the difference out of my own pocket to £1 per perch; and
I am now actually making the road at 5s. a perch, equally divided between
myself and the grand jury, not calling upon the Board of Works, because
they would require such a system of perfect inclines, and such a system
of expense, that I preferred making the road at my own expense to having
it made by the Board of Works.
152. Are you able to state the usual charge of the Board of Works for
maintaining such a road as that? It amounts to about 6d. or 7d. a perch;
it was 1s. and more, but they have, I believe, lowered it latterly. I
remember it reaching higher than 1s. considerably, and I know, in Clare,
that it is more than double the usual contracts; but the system altogether
is too expensive for general improvements.
153. I need not ask whether the making of these great roads through the
country is the first step in reclaiming these waste lands? Without roads,
nothing can be done. Unless the government open the country by making
roads, it is impossible for any thing to [Page 672] be effected; they
will not get many men who will spend twelve years of their lives in opening
the country, principally through other gentlemen’s estates, and
lay out a great deal of their money, as I have done.
154. Would the value of the land in its present state be able to pay for
those roads, so as to induce the proprietors to undertake the making of
those roads? Certainly not, particularly tenants for life.
155. What is the population of that district of the Slieve Boughta range?
The population is very thin; indeed, in the interior, as an instance of
the incredible sufferings of the people for want of roads, I will state
what happened this last summer. The inhabitants of a village called Derrygoolan,
in the heart of the mountain, had been memorialing and applying to every
person they thought able to assist them, to get a road out of that village
these twenty years past. They had no means of getting their produce to
market, or getting home themselves after nightfall, or of getting manure
into the village, and at length the people set to work themselves and
commenced making a line of road by their own labour, through the midst
of a great estate, and then some assistance was afforded to them; but
to my knowledge, for twenty years, they had been in vain petitioning and
memorialing every influential person without effect.
Mr. Ralph Cullinan, farmer of 1,200 acres at a rent of £1,500
16. Did you form your valuation upon any rule guided by the produce? Yes,
17. What were the rules upon which you acted? I took wheat at about 9s.-6d.
or 10s. per cwt., and I took oats at an average of about 5s. to 5s.-6d.
per cwt., barley at 6s.-8d., and I took butter at £3-10s., beef
at, perhaps, £1-12s. or £1-13s., mutton at £1-14s.,
and pork at 28s. Those were the articles of produce I took into my calculation.
18. Did you allot any fixed proportion of the gross produce as the rent?
No; I did not go into so minute a calculation as that.
19. How did you fix the proportion that should be the value of the ground?
From my own knowledge of farming, and matters of that kind, I calculated
such land could bear such a rent, and the tenant would have a reasonable
remuneration for his capital and labour.
20. Have you never formed any opinion of the tenant’s proportion
of the gross produce, so as to be remunerated? For his capital, and toil,
and labour he ought to have one-third or one-fourth of the gross produce.
21. What proportion do you allow for rent? I did not calculate; the remainder
would go for the rent and the out-goings – rent, taxes, and charges.
I did not go into a very minute calculation.
William Daxon, esq., farmer and agent.
9. In what manner is the rent fixed in the district; by proposal [Page
777] or valuation? By proposal generally. I do not know of farms in Clare
being set by valuation.
10. Is it a gross sum or an acreable sum that is usually offered? Acreable,
as far as arable land goes; but in mountain districts it is a gross sum.
11. When a proposal is made for a farm in that way by the acre, what is
the course adopted if a public road should run through it; is it deducted?
No; we have had many battles with the grand jury upon that subject from
time to time. We conceive, as cess-payers, this land for the public use
has no right to be charged upon us, where the landlord gets the value
for it; they generally traverse at the assizes, and get a certain sum,
and the party through whose land the road goes thinks it a hardship to
be made pay for it.
12. What is the usual rent of average good land in the district, not immediately
the town-parks? I should say the average to good land is from 30s. to
£3-10s. an acre; it depends upon the quality of the land, whether
it is land that will grow wheat, or such land as will only grow oats,
or land that will only rear, and not fatten, cattle.
13. State the average rent of those three qualities? The average of the
first quality I am speaking of is 30s., that would grow oats and potatoes;
what we call four stone land, it rears stock without finishing them.
14. What is the quantity of oats you may fairly expect from it? About
twelve Bristol barrels, fourteen stones to the barrel; or six of our barrels,
twenty-eight stones to the barrel.
15. What is the rent of wheat land? From 40s. to two guineas.
16. How much wheat would you expect from that? I should expect 200 stones
to the acre, about ten barrels of twenty stones; but, of course, this
is a thing that depends upon the culture and the season – that is
the general calculation.
17. Now, as to the fattening land, what should you reckon the best of
that at? Three pounds ten shillings, the best I know of.
18. What would it feed? It would feed and finish a heavy bullock to the
acre; a great deal of it is meadow land.
22. How soon after the rent becomes due is it the custom to demand it?
Four or five months; one gale under the other generally.
23. Is there any system of paying it by bill among the small tenants?
Not any system; in some instances it is; but, generally, there is not,
for their bills would not be taken.
30. Are the receipts for rent usually on account, or up to a particular
day? They are up to a particular day, when paid up to the day.
33. In what cases of tenants under the middlemen do you think they are
better off? Under the proprietors they come under agents, and the agents
require payments up to a certain day – that is often inconvenient;
but the middleman often pays the rent to the agent, and waits for the
cottier tenants to pay him at their convenience, and till they sell their
34. Do you state that of your own knowledge? Yes, I do.
35. Do you mean to say that the middleman is more lenient in exacting
his rent? Yes, in many cases. An agent will come into Kilrush for two
days; he receives rent the fifth of July, and thirtieth [Page 778] of
December; that rent becomes due in the November and May previous; that
man cannot spend his time there to wait the convenience of an immense
number of cottier tenants; they are obliged to pay it on a certain day
to him. I have been agent in that country many years. I have had large
sums to receive; and I always found it the case in the county of Limerick,
that a man must suit himself to the condition of the tenants.
The Rev. Michael [Maurice] Fitzgibbon, Roman Catholic clergyman.
25. The prices are very low. The prices are so low, and they get no abatement
of rent, I think there ought to be a scale of that kind. It is rather
unreasonable to expect the tenantry can pay as much now, when they get
but 13d. or 14d. a stone for wheat, when they got, a few years ago, 2s-4d
or 2s-1½d. It is by the produce of the land that they pay their
rent. If they do not get a remunerative price for the produce of their
land they cannot pay the same proportion of rent.
52. Did it ever occur to you to consider the mode they adopt in Scotland
of a corn rent varying according to the prices of produce? Yes, and I
think it would be an excellent plan, indeed.
Recovery of Rent
John Patrick Moloney, esq., land proprietor.
25. What is the usual mode of recovering rents from defaulting tenants?
Distraint and sale of the goods, and in some instances there is a worse
mode than that adopted – putting keepers upon them, and charging
them 2s-6d a day for them, which is ruinous almost to the tenant; to put
a couple of keepers on them, and leave them for fifteen days, for a rent
26. Do you mean that the keepers are put on to procure emoluments for
the bailiff? It is ostensibly to take care of the goods, or to take care
of any furniture, but in reality to put money into the pocket of the agent.
27. How does putting on a keeper put money into his pocket? He charges
2s-6d a day, and he will have a man of his own that will do it for £8
or £10 a year.
28. What is the general cost of distraining on a tenant? The cost of distraining
is not very much, it is merely the cost of the drivers – they charge
1s. in the pound; then there is the cost of the sale, and bringing out
the auctioneer, and the pound-keeper’s fees. They always charge
1s. in the pound for driving, and whether they drive [Page 816] or no,
if they only send a caution to the tenant to bring in his rent. These
things are only allowed on the properties of gentlemen not resident in
the country, and those held under the courts; the resident gentry do not
29. Are the charges pretty general on all the estates of the absentees?
Yes, on every absentee estate that has come under my cognizance.
Mr. Daniel Cullen, farmer.
40. If there is one hardship in Ireland more oppressive than another,
it is the power of distress; the landlord walks in and seizes his property,
and he can sell it. I think that the law of distress gives too great power
to the landlord.
41. Are you able to inform us the usual cost of distraining a tenant?
It very often costs him nothing, where there is a good landlord; in many
cases it costs him a vast deal of money. I have known a case of a tenant’s
property being seized for rent, and there were two men upon the premises
for fourteen days, and he was charged 2s-4d. a head, for each man, for
twenty-four hours, whereas the usual wages for men at that time was only
8d. a day.
Daniel James Wilson, esq., land proprietor.
16. The clearing system, as it is called, and
which in some few instances has been carried too far, has not been acted
upon to the extent which is asserted. It was stated by Sir. R. Bourke,
who was a constant attendant at the Limerick board of guardians, that
no case of a pauper being driven into town by his landlord had ever come
before him; and his statement was corroborated by the then chairman of
the board, Alderman Watson. I was myself accused (though not directly
by name) of having driven in a widow woman whose husband had been a tenant
of mine; whereas I ascertained, on inquiry, that the man had never been
a tenant on the property – that for eight or ten years before his
death he had lived on the adjoining property of Lord Limerick –
that he had never occupied any land of mine from the time of his father’s
death, which occurred about the year 1817, and who owed me, when dying,
£73-8s-6½d., after making him an allowance of £14-14s-10d.
James Moloney, esq., D.L., land proprietor.
14. Are those improvements which have been introduced effected by yourself
and by your capital, or by the tenants partially? By myself and my own
capital. These improvements in the parish of Feakle could never have taken
place had not the government facilitated, by a grant, the formation of
15. What assistance did the government give in that respect? The government
gave, in every case in which I have been concerned; and I have been the
means of bringing forward applications [Page 922] for the making of fifty
miles of road, which have opened that district of country. The government,
in all cases except the first, gave a moiety; and in the first case, which
was in the year 1828, they advanced the money by exchequer bills, they
were called the Exchequer Loan Bill Commissioners, but since the establishment
of the Board of Works they have uniformly given a moiety.
16. How was the other moiety found? The other moiety has been paid partly
by contribution, and partly by assessment on the baronies. Those roads
are now the best kept up; and the effect of them has been, to introduce
into the country where no wheel-carriage could have been used, the general
use of wheel-carriages, and consequently the introduction of lime, without
which no improvements can take place in the mountain district, not being
a limestone district itself.
Cornelius O’Brien, esq., M.P.
3. When you first became acquainted with this county, was it well opened
by roads? A great many of the roads were very bad. I suppose that occurred
here which has in every other part of Ireland – they made all the
roads against the hills. That has been greatly improved by making new
roads, and making them more level.
4. Have the new roads been made by the counties, or with the assistance
of government? Entirely by the counties, without any assistance from government;
there was no assistance before 1822.
5. Since 1822, have the roads been made without assistance of the government?
Yes; they have made a great many roads here under the Board of Works.
6. What do you consider has been the effect upon the condition of the
people of the improvement of the internal communication? A considerable
improvement undoubtedly. I recollect when in this part of the county it
was with great difficulty that a horse would carry four cwt., and the
same horse will now carry with greater ease a ton, and that is certainly
a great difference; one horse is now equal to four.
Cess and Other Charges
William Dixon, esq., farmer.
11. I took the farm I live on when the taxes were 8d. an acre. I was quite
satisfied with that, and am still satisfied to pay that; but it comes
now to 2s-8d. an acre, and the landlord ought to pay some portion of that
which I did not contemplate at the time as belonging to my farm.
Mr. Benjamin Cox, farmer.
78. What difference, in your opinion, has been made to the tenant by placing
the tithe rent-charge upon the landlord? I do not think much difference
has been made. In one way there has been a benefit – it has removed
a bone of contention, but in many instances the tenant has not been much
benefited; if the tenancy was in existence at the time of changing it
into a composition, the tenant gets a deduction, but if he takes the land
anew he pays the tithe in the shape of additional rent.
Mr. Daniel Cullen, farmer.
43. Is there any system of the payment of fees to agents upon the acceptance
of proposals for farms? Yes, there is.
44. Does that still continue? Yes, it does, and in many cases you have
very little chance of a farm without being first able to bribe the agent.
45. Have any recent instances of that come within your knowledge? Yes.
46. In what district? In the county of Clare, on the lands of Quinpool,
on the property of Benjamin Finch White. I had occasion to make application
to the landlord to take up ten acres of land from him. I had to give the
agent £20; it was never introduced into the receipt or into the
deed I received.
47. Did you take it upon a lease? Yes, I had a lease of twenty one years.
48. Who was the agent? The agent was a brother to Mr. White., the landlord.
49. Where does the agent reside? He resides on a part of the lands of
Quinpool, about two miles and a half or three miles from the town. I have
heard of other tenants who got leases at the same time had to give money,
more or less.
50. Is there, in your opinion, any general system of making payments of
that kind to agents connected with the management of property in the county
of Clare? I have heard a vast deal of people say, “I have had to
give the agent so and so, before I could get the land.”
Statement of Benjamin Finch White, esq., in reply to the evidence
of Mr. Daniel Cullen.
In reference to the evidence of Mr. D. Cullen, I beg to state, for the
information of the Land Commissioners, that in 1838 I set a farm to Mr.
D. Cullen, which contained about 12½ Irish acres; but that I never
was aware that he, or two other tenants who took similar farms from me
at that time, had paid any money to my agent, or had given any thing to
him for his interest with me to get them the land. I beg further to say
that I am very much opposed to such a system, and also, that I have collected
my own rents since 1838.
James Molony, esq., land proprietor.
18. There is very great difference in the management of individual estates.
The absentee cannot expect that his agent will take all the precautions
which he might do himself, or expose himself to the unpopularity of very
severe measures, when he has not the power of softening them to the people,
by giving employment, or by acts of charity. Some agents are non-resident,
and employ under-agents to collect the rents. That is the very worst of
all; and I have known some under-agents who have been the means of obtaining
farms for themselves, from which the former tenants were ejected. The
agent’s duties are limited to the recovery of rents; he is a mere
Cornelius O’Brien, esq., M.P.
49. The estate of a person that I am acquainted with consisted of 3,000
or 4,000 acres in the next barony to this; it was set under the court
in large farms from 100 up to 500 or 600 acres; the middleman had kept
the grazing part for himself, the poorer part having been sublet to a
most wretched class of tenantry. I proposed to the court that the better
land should be apportioned, according to their capital, among the tenants
who held the poorer lands. The court sanctioned the proceeding, and a
valuation and survey were directed of the lands; and now they are set
in that manner, in divisions proportioned to their capital, the increase
on the rental has been about one-fourth, and the condition of the tenantry
is necessarily very much improved. The arrangement is [Page 1084] one
that has conferred benefit upon all parties concerned, save the discarded
50. Were there any new tenants brought in? Yes; there are new tenants.
The chancellor, under the master’s report, consented to leases of
twenty-one years, and agreed that drains and mearing fences shall be made
through the estate, and half the expense of the houses at the cost of
the estate; the leases containing covenants enforcing residence, and preventing
51. Was there any agrarian outrage in the district in consequence of bringing
in the new tenants? Not the least in the world.
54. You have spoken of the course pursued upon an estate under the court
of chancery, do you see any difficulty in the courts acting in the same
manner upon the estates of minors? Not the least in the world. I think
that an uncertain term of six or seven years, and attending at the master’s
office to renew, is ruinous to the estate. Minors’ and lunatics’
properties are injured by being under the court. When parties go into
the master’s office, like every other auction, not liking to be
put out, they bid more than the value. There are then applications to
the court for abatements, and all that falls ultimately upon the estate.
A tenant who bids more than the value is almost sure to be a broken man:
I think it ought to be done by valuation. The master, if dealing with
minors’ properties, would deal with greater advantage if he was
to get the estate valued, and not take a bidding beyond the value.
55. In the case of estates that may be under the courts at the suit of
creditors, what difficulty would arise in the court pursuing the system
of valuation upon letting? None at all; there might be some difference
as to the term granted. It would not be fair to the debtor to have a setting
made of his lands when the debt may be paid in the course of a year, it
should be pending the suit, but not a lease of twenty-one years absolute.
Now in the case of a lunatic the lease or agreement is for twenty-one
years certain, and that would effect the next in succession. I think it
ought also to effect the minor in the same way, for the same reason, when
the minor comes of age.
George O’Callaghan, esq., land proprietor.
38. Are there many properties under the courts? Several.
39. What is the condition of the tenants on the properties under the courts,
compared to those under the proprietors? I think they are not as well
off on the properties under the courts as on the properties of the proprietors.
40. From what does that arise? From having to deal with a receiver, who
is bound to enforce the payment of the rent one gale within another, and
whose duty it is to return as little arrears as he possibly can, and whose
interest it is to collect as much as he can.
David John Wilson, esq., land proprietor.
16. 7th. That absenteeism is one of the greatest calamities our country
labours under, cannot be denied; but to impose a tax on absentees (as
has often been suggested), is so contrary to the spirit of British freedom,
that even were there no other grounds on which to oppose it, that one
alone would be sufficient.
If absenteeism be a calamity, it necessarily follows that residence must
be an advantage to the country. Now, in order to encourage [Page 1095]
those who are residents, and increase their means of giving employment,
and improving the condition of their tenantry, I propose that £15,000,000,
or £10, 000,000 or even £5,000,000, be raised and lent to
resident landed proprietors, at three and a half or four per cent., to
pay off prior undisputed judgements, or for such other purposes as may
be deemed advisable. At present, six per cent, is the rate of interest
most generally paid in Ireland – higher, of course, than in any
other portion of the kingdom; and our ancestors, in most instances (no
matter from what cause), left their inheritors somewhat involved by debt.
The peace of 1814 considerably lessened the means of Irish proprietors
to meet the demands upon them. By the bill of 1819, not only were their
means still further diminished, but their debt was increased (by how much
I will not presume to say). Will it then be deemed unreasonable to expect
a loan of £10,000,000 or £15,000,000 for Ireland, on undeniable
security, at an equitable rate of interest, where £20,000,000 have
been given (in a good cause certainly,) to the West India planters? Though
unwilling to extend the limits prescribed, I cannot avoid giving an illustration
of the effect of a loan such as I propose. I could name a nobleman and
a gentleman of, say, £10,000 a year each, whose debts amount to
a considerable sum; but who, from family settlements, or other causes,
are unable to sell – excellent landlords, giving constant employment
to numbers – judicious and extensive improvers – estimable
country gentlemen, in every sense. Suppose, for argument, their debt to
be £100,000 each, £6,000, at six per cent, is required for
interest, leaving £4,000 for agency, cost, defalcations, charities,
improvements, household expenses. Reduce the interest to four per cent,
and it leaves an available income of £2,000 in addition, either
for a sinking fund, or improvements, and, consequently, employment. If
they cannot sell, or raise money at a lower rate of interest, their only
alternative must be, to give up their properties to their creditors, retire
to the continent, and add to the number of absentees. Should it be the
intention to saddle proprietors with a poor rate, and the payment of tithes,
in addition to their other burdens, they will stand still more in need
of assistance; but the mere announcement of the intention of a loan would
almost be the means of rendering it unnecessary.
David John Wilson, esq., land proprietor.
7. Do the tenants hold immediately under the landlord, or are there many
middlemen in the district? The tenure is derived in various ways, but,
generally speaking, so little attention has hitherto been paid by landlords
(myself among the number) to the state of their tenantry, that but little
difference is perceptible in the state of their houses or farms. Persons
deriving immediately under the landlord, however, do not pay such high
rents as those deriving under middlemen and sub-middlemen, for I have
almost invariably found that as the grades descend the rents increase.
They have also the advantage of having no more than one person to claim
rent from them. I have known tenants distrained, and their stock (in three
or four instances) impounded by five several claimants within the course
of ten or fifteen days.
Witnesses who gave evidence
relating to Clare
Evidence was collected at various towns throughout the country. Each witness
was given a number.
|Gort, Wednesday, 7th August,
||Ennistymon, Thursday, 22nd August,
|502 Jeremiah Roseingrave, esq.
||595 Cornelius O'Brien, esq., M.P.
|505 Burton Bindon, esq.
||596 Captain John Crowe
||597 Mr. John O'Dwyer
|Scarrif, Tuesday, 20th August, 1844.
||598 Mr. Thomas O'Dwyer
|571 George O'Callaghan, esq.
|572 Rev. Patrick Shea
||Kilrush, Friday, 23rd August, 1844.
|573 Mat. Milekin
||599 Mr. Benjamin Cox
|574 John Patrick Molony, esq.
||600 Mr. Thomas Studdert
|575 Mr. Edmund Burke
||601 Mr. James Shannon
|576 Maurice O'Connell, esq.
||602 Jonas Studdert, esq.
|577 Rev. Patrick Quade
||603 Rev. Timothy Kelly
|578 Rev. Michael O'Connor
||604 Rev. John Kenny
|579 James Molony, esq.
||605 Mr. John Honan
|580 Martin Carroll
||606 Mr. Patrick Slattery
|581 Michael Creaven
||607 Mr. Robert Fitzgerald
||608 Rev. Malachi Duggan
|Ennis, Wednesday, 21st August, 1844
||609 John Lynch
|582 George Sampson, esq.
||610 Patrick Crotty
|583 Henry Spaight, esq.
||611 Patrick Fitzgerald
|584 Rev. Daniel Corbett
||612 Francis John Fitzgerald, esq.
|585 John Singleton, esq.
|586 Rev. Jeremiah Vaughan
||Limerick, Monday, 26th August, 1844
|587 Colonel Charles Synge
||613 Mr. Joseph Edward Vize
|588 Michael Cahill
||617 Mr. James Frost
|589 Thomas Crowe, esq.
||618 Mr. Daniel Cullen
|590 William Daxon, esq.
||625 David John Wilson
|591 Hugh O'Loughlin, esq.
||623 Rev. Michael [Maurice] Fitzgibbon
|592 Mr. Ralph Cullinan
|593 Mr. John O'Leary
||Newcastle, Thursday, 29th August, 1844
|594 Mr. Thomas Gibson
||652 Robert O’Brien, esq.
||1063 Marcus Keane
||53 Philip Reade, esq.
||74 Benjamin Finch White
State of the law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in
Ireland: evidence taken before Her Majesty's Commissioners: part II, 1845
HC 1845  20 1