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Saturday May 6 1916 - Part 1


[EDITORIAL]

Only now, when Dublin is slowly awaking from the nightmare of horror and devastation, which in a single week, at one of the holiest times of the Christian year, has reduces our fair Capital to a pitiable spectacle, the only counterpart to which we can find would be the ruins of one of the unhappy cities of Belgium, and details are gradually leaking through, can we realise the extent of the damage wrought in this unhappy attempt to create an “Irish Republic.” That the forces responsible for the orgy of bloodshed and pillage were well prepared cannot be doubted. Military equipment for thousands, in rifles, and even machine guns, was in the city, and ammunition in abundance and it will probably be a matter for inquiry afterwards how such huge quantities of war material came to be ready at hand, and the source whence it came. The outbreak was curiously coincident with the sensational appearance of unhappy Sir Roger Casement on the Kerry coast, the reported fate of certain German vessels off the coast, and sudden dash of a German squadron on the English coast, whose only contribution to a hoped upsetting of Britain was the killing of a baby, a woman and two men! That the insurrection, whether it was premature or otherwise, was deeply involved with German intrigue there can be little doubt, and that the leaders looked for aid from the Continent is shadowed forth in the flamboyant language of the proclamation of the “Irish Republic,” to “gallant Allies in Europe.” What allies for the brave, but misguided young Irish dupes and tools – the wreckers of poor Belgium, the violators of her Nuns, the murderers of her priests, and the burners of her Cathedrals and Churches! The new school of “intellectuals,” many of them in well-paid Government positions, who have of recent years come to the front of Irish politics, hating and denouncing England, has a heavy responsibility upon its shoulders for the shattered ruins in one of the fairest cities of the United Kingdom. Already three of the signatories to the Republican proclamation have paid with their lives for their acts of amazing madness. War is the soldier’s game, and does not lie readily to the hand of the scholar, student, or working man. The forces who rallied to the raising of the green flag of the Republic which died in its birth, fought with splendid bravery and reckless enthusiasm, and we feel that they should be acquitted of individual blame for the acts of murder, and robbery, which will ever make Irishmen blush for shame, for the first time, at an ill-fated effort at achieving separation from England. The Citizen Army, of ill-omen, with its attendant mobs of ill-conditioned and vicious followers, which made their mark in the unfortunate strikes of four years ago, was only too ready to join in the insurrection, and it was these mobs which on the very opening day of the outbreak started on their old game of loot and pillage. The Sinn Fein Volunteers seemed powerless to stem this flood of disorder and of course they will ever be associated in this, to use the words of Mr John Redmond, “insane and anti-patriotic movement,” with the un-National acts of the … [column ends here].


THE DUBLIN TRAGEDY

MANY FIRES.

O’CONNELL ST. BURNED.

NEARLY £2,000,000 DESTROYED

Dublin, Saturday, 6 p.m.

The Stephen’s Green insurgents surrendered at three o’clock on Sunday afternoon, and were marched to Richmond Barracks after laying down their arms. The notorious Countess Markievitz (nee Gore-Booth), who had been taking an active part in the revolt, wearing a man’s uniform, was in the contingent of Sinn Fein snipers, and went with them to the barracks.
Undoubtedly the collapse of the revolt was hastened be then unconditional surrender of the rebel leaders, Pearse and Connolly. Both men – the latter is badly wounded, and had been reported dead – pleaded hard with General Sir John Maxwell, the Commander-in-Chief, to secure some kind of terms for the rank and file, but in the end when they agreed to recommend the immediate cessation of hostilities as far as lay within their power. The rebels who are coming in to-day become prisoners unconditionally. At the time of writing there are upwards of 1,000 prisoners confined in the Dublin area.

BARRICADES AT EVERY CORNER.

In the area immediately west of Sackville Street, between Parnell Street and Abbey Street, the barricades are unusually strong. They include brewer’s wagons, gipsy vans, and every conceivable article of furniture. There is one at every corner across every street and alley, no matter how narrow. The firemen made several attempts to check the incendiarism at the risk of their lives. On Friday they were repeatedly sniped at from house-tops to prevent their directing water to burning buildings in Sackville Street. All the incendiary fires were started with inflammatory materials, arranged by experts. On Friday night a fire was started in Lord Edward street, near City Hall, in the hope that it would reach Dublin Castle, but it was extinguished before doing material damage near the Castle.

REBEL OFFICER’S TUNIC.

A rebel officer’s tunic is one of the many trophies of the troops. It is of “heather” colour serge, and an exact copy of a British officer’s tunic save that the facings are of green. Two stars on the cuff showed that the wearer (since dead) was a lieutenant. One sniper was dislodged from the inside of a tall chimney early on Saturday morning, after he had enjoyed two days and nights of potting at soldiers and civilians. Another pretended to be ill in bed when the house from which the shots were fired was rushed by troops. But he wore all his clothes, and his rifle was under the bed.
A woodyard near the docks gave cover to rebel marksmen between five and eight o’clock every evening. At other times it was harmless, but for three hours every night bullets spattered the opposite side of an important thoroughfare, and several persons were wounded. On Friday night the sniper found the woodpile occupied when he crawled into it on his belly, dragging a gun with him. Soldiers were waiting for him. He will snipe no more.

R.I.C. MEN DISARMED

A party of R.I.C. men under an Inspector were surrounded and disarmed at a town some miles north of Dublin, where detachments of troops have been sent in motor cars, with machine guns. Armed forces of rebels are reported to be still active in Meath. The last act of the surviving rebels before evacuating the Post Office on Friday morning was to set the building on fire with petrol. The fire spread to the Hotel Metropole, adjoining the Post Office, and it was completely destroyed. The rebel headquarters moved to a building called the Coliseum when the Post Office was given up.
The Gresham Hotel in Upper Sackville St. is filled with guests, who remained in the building throughout the week. The front rooms were shuttered and locked by order of the military, and, although living within a few hundred feet of the rebel headquarters, the inmates could see nothing of the drama in Sackville Street. The Imperial Hotel and Cleary’s store, on the same side of the street, were burned, and the occupants of the Gresham were ready to move, under sniper’s fire, when it became apparent that the fire would not spread to the few intervening houses.

FINAL DRAMATIC SCENES
WORK WITH BAYONET AND BOMB AMONG THE REBELS
Dublin, Sunday

The end of the rebellion came with dramatic suddenness. It was about 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon. The military cordon had been drawn closer and closer round the rebels’ main area – Sackville Street.
Sackville Street has suffered severely from the bombardment, which was inevitable, in order to break the back of the rebel resistance.
From Lower Abbey Street to the Quay it has been almost completely destroyed. The well known buildings which have been laid in ruins include the Imperial Hotel, the D.B.C. (Dublin Bread Company), and Hopkins’, the jewellers, at the corner of Sackville Street, to the quayside – a shop much frequented by tourists for mementoes. These premises have not only been battered by gunfire, but completely burnt out.
It took little time to convince the rebels that they could not hope to stand up against such an attack. The Post Office was badly smashed, and flames broke out at the roof. The military determined once and for all to have done with, if ?? be the building, which was known to contain the largest number of insurgents, together with quantities of munitions and food, in their efforts to gain submission.

THE DEADLY WEDGE.

One stronghold after another had been wrested from them. They were encircled by troops. The very centre of their position was effectively dominated by the military, who had driven a wedge from the Kingsbridge on the west and Balls Bridge on the south to a point opposite Trinity College, whence they raked both sides of Sackville street with shellfire. The rebellion was gripped at the heart, and the life was steadily squeezed out of it.

THE WHITE FLAG.

The building was burning – it is smouldering still – and further resistance from this particular point was impossible. It was a beautiful day of sunshine, and the black smoke could be seen against the blue sky for miles around. From above the smoke a white flag could be discerned. It was the signal for submission.
Out of the smoking building came Pearce [sic], the “President” of the new “Irish Republic,” Connolly, the “Vice President and Commander-in-Chief of the Republican Army,” and the Secretary of Liberty Hall. Connolly was badly wounded and had to be assisted. They surrendered unconditionally. Paper was produced, and upon it the prisoners announced such was their intention, and signed their names. They were immediately taken prisoners. With them marched the remnants of the “Republican” Army strongly guarded by troops.
The word must have quickly got round, for during the day batches of other rebels from different parts of the city surrendered also, and were taken away under escort.
These sporadic surrenders have taken place all through to-day (Sunday). Where the rebels have not surrendered they have been driven out with rifle fire, hand grenades and bayonets.

A BAYONET CHARGE.

One of the hottest little episodes that has been reported in the street fighting occurred yesterday morning, when the Sinn Feiners were cleared out of the “Daily Mail and Evening Mail”. They had been sniping at the Castle, and it was decided to adopt “rush” tactics in taking the building.
The soldiers twice stormed it, having four men shot in the second attack; but they drove out the rebels at the point of the bayonet.
At the South Union Workhouse, one of the extreme outposts of the rebels, there was not much difficulty. The rebels came out carrying a white flag of their own free will, and were immediately surrounded.
The “Republican” flag of the rebels has not yet been captured. It is green, with a golden harp without the crown.
One of the last places to be driven in during in during the week-end was Jacob’s biscuit works. Nothing is now left but the skeleton of a building.

TO PREVENT ESCAPE.

This afternoon a further body of 50 men surrendered. They were marched openly through the streets with a guard of soldiers on each side of them, with loaded rifles and fixed bayonets. They wore no uniforms or armlets, and could fairly be described as an unshaven, dirty, and ragged lot.
Special precautions are being taken to prevent escapes, and all avenues of exit from the disaffected areas are being closely watched, while detectives scrutinise every outgoing passenger on the mailboat. Many of the inhabitants have suffered hardships having, with their children, been short of food for over three days. The food supply is still deficient; moreover, the people have no money to purchase any; all business having been suspended.

REVOLVER UNDER HER APRON.

A case has been credibly reported where a woman stood in the street with a revolver concealed beneath her apron, and shot an officer in the back just as he passed her. Almost all the grocers’ shops in Kingstown are closed, and in one store, which opens for a short time in the afternoon, a queue of women waits outside daily. There is no butter, and bread supplies are not guaranteed. In some cases householders have been rationed for bread for the time being.
Meat has advanced by threepence and sixpence a pound. The confectioners are almost cleared out, and do not know whether they will have anything to sell on Monday. Prices of many things have increased daily, and the refreshment tariff grows astonishingly. At a café on Thursday, tea with bread and butter was 8d. To-day’s price is 1s.

O’CONNELL STREET RUINED.

NEARLY £2,000,000 DESTROYED.

£1,100,000 might be put down as an approximate value of all the buildings destroyed by the fires on the east and west sides of the Sackville street area. It is the estimate of Captain Purcell, Chief of the Dublin Fire Brigade, who further says that a very rough approximation of the loss in stock must be put at over three quarters of a million. The total number of buildings involved in the fires is 179. The rating value of these is £33,875. With the assistance of a specially coloured map, Captain Purcell described to a representative of the “Irish Times” the area of the fires as follows – The total area burnt out on the east side of Sackville Street district includes – Portion of the block between Cathedral St. and Earl St., the whole block between Earl St. and Sackville Place, bounded by Nelson Lane at the back; portion of the block between Abbey St. and Eden Quay, bounded by Marlborough Street on the east. The area of this east side district is 27,000 square yards. Among the principal establishments in the area were the Royal Hibernian Academy, Clery’s warehouse; the Imperial Hotel, the D.B.C., the branches of the Hibernian Bank, and the Munster and Leinster Bank, Wynne’s Hotel, Hayte’s, the druggists, Messrs. Hamilton and Long’s; Sir Joseph Downes’ new restaurant and bakery, Lawrence shops and warehouse, Messers Hopkins and Hopkins’ jewellery establishment, and the four public houses – Messrs. Nagle’s and Sheridan’s in North Earl Street; Messrs. Mooney’s in Lower Abbey Street, and Messrs. Mooney’s in Eden Quay, etc.
On the west side of Sackville Street the area destroyed by fire is as follows – Portion of the block bounded by Henry Street; Henry Place and Moore Street, between Moore Street and Cole’s lane, running back in part to Samson’s lane; the whole block running from the Post Office to Arnott’s warehouse, fronting to Henry Street back to Prince’s Street; the greater portion of the block from Sackville Street fronting Lower Abbey Street and towards Liffey Street, within a short distance of the “Independent” Printing Office, where the fire was stopped; portion of the block to the south side of Middle Abbey Street, with two houses fronting to Sackville Street, up to and including 62 Middle Abbey Street. This area of the fire on the west side of Sackville Street is 34,000 sq. yard in extent. The principal buildings burnt are the General Post Office; the Hotel Metropole, Messrs. Eason and Sons, Messrs. Mandfields’ new warehouse, the Freeman’s Journal office, Messrs. Bewley’s, Messrs. Alexander Pierie’s wholesale paper warehouse, Hampton Leedom’s, Messrs. Curtis and Sons, brass foundry and munitions factory, where much work has been going on recently; the Oval Bar, Messrs. Thom’s Printing Works, Messrs. Sealy Bryers and Walkers, and Messrs. Fitzgeralds, etc.
Outside these principal areas there were fires in two houses in Harcourt street of £85 valuation, and at Nos 1, 2 and 3 Usher’s Quay, and round the corner into Bridge Street, where the fire was stopped before it reached the Brazen Head Hotel. These places have a total valuation of £277.
Another area of fire outside the Sackville street districts is that including the ancient Linen Hall Barracks, one of the landmarks in the history of a great national industry, recently the seat of the Civic Exhibition, and latterly the office of the Army Pay Department. Here 32 clerks were employed. They were surrounded and besieged for four days and unable to get food. Twice this place was fired. The staff dealt with it themselves. The fire brigade could not approach it. It is stated that on the fourth day the rebels, by means of bombs at the rear, ignited the building by setting fire to a wooden structure, erected at the time of the Civic Exhibition. This was ready prey to flames. This fire occupied the portion of the Linen Hall occupied by Messrs. Hugh Moore and Alexander, Ltd., wholesale druggists and drysalters. The premises, which covered about two acres, contained huge stores of oils and chemicals.
Some small conception of the work of the brigade and the danger to the city of utter ruin may be gathered from the history Captain Purcell gave of the fires that occurred, and how the Brigade dealt with them. Captain Purcell’s story is as follows:- The first call came at 3.48 p.m., on Monday 24th. It was from the Ordnance Department at Island Bridge, stating there was a fire at the Magazine in the Phoenix Park. A detachment was sent with a motor engine from the Thomas Street section. They made their way around Steven’s lane and Kingsbridge and managed to get to the Magazine without opposition. They found one section of the Magazine on fire. This contained large numbers of small arms, and a large number of boxes of ammunition. They found one section of the magazine more or less destroyed, but the remainder was saved. In the meantime Lieut. Meyers, who attended with another motor engine, was held up at a barricade by Sinn Feiners with loaded revolvers. One of these weapons was placed at the head of the driver, and he was ordered to return.
At 10.6 p.m. on Monday, a box call came from the alarm at Nelson’s Pillar that there was a fire at the Cable Shoe’s Company’s shop in Sackville Street. The fire looked dangerous, and at 10.24 the Buckingham street section also arrived. The fire was extinguished at 10.59 p.m. At 11.30 p.m. there was a call of fire in the True Form Shoe Company, also in Sackville street. This place, like Cable Shoe shop, had been looted, and papers, etc., set alight. The fire was extinguished at 12.30 on Tuesday morning.

JACOB’S FACTORY.

The surrender of the Volunteers who occupied Jacob’s Factory took place on Sunday afternoon. It was a member of the Carmelite Order from Whitefriar Street who was instrumental in persuading them to yield. Amid the cheers of the crowd gathered about the building the clergyman was hoisted by a number of men up to one of the lower windows, for which the bags of flour used instead of sand by the rebels and been pulled. He went inside the factory, and not long after a party of Volunteers walked out.

ARCHBISHOP WALSH’S APPEAL.

In the Catholic Churches in the Diocese of Dublin, a circular letter was read from Archbishop Walsh appealing to the people at this time of danger and excitement to avoid the streets and places of public assembly.

LEADERS SHOT.

OFFICIAL STATEMENT.

Dublin Wednesday

The following official communiqué was issued today -
Three signatories of the notice proclaiming the Irish Republic – P H Pearse, T McDonagh, and T J Clarke – have been tried by Field General Courtmartial and sentenced to death. The sentences have been duly confirmed, and the three above-mentioned men were shot this morning. The trial of further prisoners is proceeding.
Yesterday there were still some small disturbances in the South and West of Ireland, in which some casualties have occurred. The rest of Ireland is reported quiet. Larne has been added to the list of ports from which passengers may leave Ireland. Until further notice no aliens will be allowed to land in Ireland unless in possession of a permit, which can be obtained from the military permit officer, 19 Bedford Square, London, or from the Military Control Officer, Room 347, Royal Liver Building, Liverpool. All persons who intend to travel between England and Ireland should be in possession of papers proving their identity.

A Dublin correspondent writes -

Mr P H Pearse has for some years been carrying on St Enda’s School at Rathfarnham, which was specially devoted to Irish studies. For some years he was editor of “An Claideamh Solius,” the official organ of the Gaelic League. He was a member of the Irish Bar, but never practiced. His father was a well-known monumental sculptor, having premises in Great Brunswick street.
Mr T McDonagh was a professor or lecturer at the National University in some branch of Irish studies. Both he and Mr Pearse were young men. Mr McDonagh was, it is believed, a native of Kerry.
Mr Clarke was an elderly man. He served a long term of imprisonment for complicity in dynamite outrages in England in the eighties, and on his release several years ago set up a small shop in Britain St (now Parnell St), within a few yards of the Parnell Monument. He sold tobacco and newspapers.

TRIALS OF REBELS.

THE CASE OF WOMEN PRISONERS.

Dublin, Wednesday.

The following communication was issued yesterday afternoon from the Official Press Office, Irish Command -
Rebels considered suitable for trial are being tried by Field General Courtmartial under the Defence of the Realm Act in Dublin. As soon as the sentences have been confirmed the public will be informed as to the results of the trial. Those prisoners whose cases could not be immediately dealt with are being sent to places of confinement in England. Their cases will receive consideration later. The cases of the women taken prisoners are under consideration. The work of dealing with these trials is one of great magnitude, and is being proceeded with despatch.

ARREST OF SINN FEINERS IN CLARE.

On Thursday morning six young men from Corofin and Ennistymon districts were forwarded to Limerick by the early train, under armed escort, to be handed over to the military authorities in that city. They were J H and J Hunt, brothers, of Corofin, the former a leader of the Irish Volunteers there, and a prominent member of the Corofin District Council; Martin Crowe, a member of the same Council; and J Kearse, a young farmer; J Waldron, a Gaelic Instructor, and organiser, of Ennistymon, and Colman O’Loghlen, a prominent Irish Volunteer and Sinn Feiner in Carron, North Clare. The latter was out of the signatories, with the ill-fated P H Pearse, T McDonagh, and The O’Rahilly, of the document in which the “Irish Volunteers” in September, 1914, declared themselves an independent organisation. There was no excitement over the arrests, and only a few people watched their departure from the station.
Matters through Clare remain perfectly quiet. About a hundred and fifty police from Fermanagh, Down, and Longford are still in town, and a number of motor cars are still “parked” in the barracks grounds here.

COUNTY COUNCILLOR TAKEN INTO CUSTODY.

Mr Denis Healy, Co. C., Bodyke, has been arrested near Killaloe, for, we hear, ignoring the challenge of a military sentry who called on him to halt, as he was cycling homewards the other night. He was conveyed to Limerick.

MANY ARRESTS IN GALWAY.

The police and military have made many arrests around Athenry, Craughwell, Loughrea and Oranmore, and special trains have brought the men into Galway. A number of them, it is stated, have been placed aboard a Government gunboat in the harbour, while others were lodged in Galway Jail. An Ennis visitor to the city informs us that he witnessed about fifty lodged in the jail yesterday.
It is reported that one woman was arrested in the Ardrahan district. The nature of her offence has not transpired.
There were seven signatories to the proclamation of the “Irish Republic,” and three of these have already been executed. Over a thousand prisoners have been sent across to England.

THE KERRY ARRESTS.

Casement is believed to have disclosed his identity to a clergyman in Tralee before being removed on Saturday morning. Arthur Black, Commander of the Tralee Volunteers and Cornelius Collins, accountant’s office, GPO, Dublin, arrested in connection with the attempted landing of arms, were removed under a strong accord of police and military from Tralee Jail and were conveyed by mail train to a destination unknown. There was no attempt of any display as the prisoners were marched through the town to the railway station.

REBELLION FIZZLES OUT IN CO. GALWAY.

The rebellion in Galway has been fizzling out since Thursday. It was a flash in the pan from the first. The only serious incidents were a constable shot and two injured, the tearing up of some yards of railway each night, which temporarily stopped traffic, and the cutting of telegraph wires. It is all over. The police have brought in about fifty prisoners. Twp prominent professors of the University College, Galway, were the first.

CORK COUNTY QUIET.

OFFICIAL.

We have received the following –
London, Wednesday, 2.30 p.m.
Dublin gradually reverting to normal conditions. Cork County quiet, with the exception of affray in Fermoy district, where a Head Constable was shot dead on attempting to arrest two men – Sinn Feiners.

THE PROVINCES.

Normal – Great Southern and Western Railway, Dublin, Cork, Tralee, Limerick.
Quiet – Waterford, King’s County, Queen’s County, Wicklow, Carlow, Cork, W.R., Galway E.R., Mayo, Belfast, and Ulster Counties.

SINN FEINERS CALLED ON TO SURRENDER ARMS.

The following proclamation was issued yesterday:-

PROCLAMATION
PUBLIC NOTICE
ARMS AND AMMUNITION

I, General Sir John Grenfell Maxwell, K.C.B., .K.C.M.G., C.V.O., D.S.O., Commanding-in-Chief of his Majesty’s Forces in Ireland, order that all members of the Irish Volunteers Sinn Fein Organisation, or of the Irish Citizen Army, shall forthwith surrender all Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives in their possession to the nearest Military or the nearest Police Barracks. Any member of either of these organisations found in the possession of any Arms, Ammunition, or Explosives after the sixth day of May, 1916, will be severely dealt with.
JG MAXWELL,
General Commanding-in-Chief of the Forces in Ireland.
Headquarters Irish Command,
Second day of May, 1916.


IRISH PORTS OF EMBARKATION
MILITARY ORDER.

We received the following on Tuesday -
(OFFICIAL.)
“The G.O.C. the troops has issued an order that no persons can leave Ireland except at North Wall, Dublin, Kingstown, Belfast, and Greenore, and at these ports only by producing credentials proving identity, and giving valid reasons for journey.”
Later. – Larne was added later.

ALL IRISH RACING FIXTURES ABANDONED FOR THE PRESENT.

The Stewards of the Turf Club and the I.N.H.S. Committee have ordered the cancelling of all racing fixtures. With the dislocation of the railway services and the other means of transit, the ruling bodies had no option but to take this course. They hope to be in a position to announce the renewal of racing in a short space of time.

HURLING, FOOTBALL AND RACING SUSPENDED.

The following official communication was issued to-day:-
The Competent Military Authority orders that all concerned be informed no football, or hurling matches, or race meetings, are to take place until further notice.

FIRST MAN SHOT IN DUBLIN.

Constable James O’Brien, 168 B, was the first man shot on Easter Monday. He was on duty at the gate of the Upper Castle Yard, when he met his death at the hands of a rebel. Constable Michael Lahiff, 125 B, was on duty at the Grafton street entrance to St. Stephen’s Green Park, and was ordered away by the rebels when they were taking possession. He refused to desert his post, and was shot dead. Constable Frith, 174 C, was on duty in Store street Police Station, when he was “sniped” through one of the windows.

THE O’RAHILLY DEAD.

The body of The O’Rahilly, one of the rebel leaders, has been found in Moore lane, adjacent to the General Post Office. It is believed that he was brought down by a shot from the military when he was trying to escape from the Post Office.

LIES FOR IRELAND

The rebels worked up a campaign of fake information during the earlier period of the outbreak. The wildest rumours were prevalent apparently all over Ireland. In Dublin it was widely believed that a large force of Irish-Americans had made, or were about to make, a descent on the coast of Ireland in aid of the rebel forces. One estimate is that the phantom army placed its strength at 700,000 men. The “fall of Verdun” was another item of news diligently circulated in the city, together with the premature news of the surrender of Kut. All these stories were circulated to hearten the rebels and win over those whose decision was in the balance. No one seemed to have heard of the arrest of Sir Roger Casement.

RESIGNATION OF MR BIRRELL.
IRISH SECRETARY WHO FALTERED WITH INSURRECTION.
RETURN FROM RUINED CAPITAL TO GIVE UP HIS OFFICE.

Mr Augustine Birrell has resigned his office as Chief Secretary for Ireland.
He returned from Dublin on Tuesday night, saw the Prime Minister yesterday morning, and in the afternoon took a corner seat above the gangway in the House of Commons – thereby demonstrating that he was no longer a member of the Government.
The resignation was not unexpected. Indeed the Government could hardly have faced the House of Commons if Mr Birrell still held office. Rightly or wrongly, he was held responsible for the inaction of the Irish Government while the rebels were preparing their insurrection, and of treating the Sinn Fein movement with a tolerant contempt.
Mr Augustine Birrell is an amiable and brilliant writer, who has held the thankless position of Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for nine years. He is 66, the son of a Noncomformist minister, and his second wife, who died last year, was the widow of the Hon Lionel Tennyson. From 1905 tom 1907 he was president of the Board of Education, and the author of the Bill which nearly wrecked Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman’s Liberal Government. Mr Birrell’s avowed recreation is bookhunting, and to his friends he made no secret of the fact that his ambition was to be the last Irish Chief Secretary.

MR BIRRELL’S ADMISSION.

Mr Birrell has made a personal statement in which he said that an inquiry would be held into the history of Irish administration in which he could take part. It would not be wise and prudent for him at the moment to speak of grave events which were fresh in his mind. He admitted that he made an untrue estimate of the Sinn Fein movement.

THE REBEL CASUALTIES.
MANY UNACCOUNTED FOR.

Although various reports, official and otherwise, have been made as to the number of casualties, it is to be feared that many people will remain unaccounted for. An instance of this is related in the experience on Tuesday of a Red Cross worker who saw a hearse with three coffins draw up in front of a home in North King street. These, it was understood, were for the corpses of three fallen rebels which had lain there for some days, heavy fighting having taken place in that locality. Taking into account the number of funerals from the vicinity for the past few days, it must be concluded that their losses in that vicinity, which was supposed to have been very cleverly cannonaded, were very heavy. Driven forth from the main position in the Church street area, refugee Volunteers sought the sanctuary of private houses, to the terror of the inhabitants. Getting into backyards those partly uniformed shed their accoutrements and equipment, and thoughtlessly perhaps placed the occupants of the houses in dire peril of arrest, if not worse, at the hands of the military authorities.

PRISONERS LANDED AT HOLYHEAD.

At three o’clock this morning over four hundred Sinn Feiners arrived in Holyhead as prisoners, being carefully guarded by troops, who accompanied them with fixed bayonets. The majority of them wore ordinary civilian clothes, which were dirt stained. A few wore the uniform of the Irish Volunteers. Many were hatless and without overcoats and shivered as they stood on the railway platform in the chilly hours at dawn. Several were merely youths, and there was a sprinkling of old men, but the party was mainly composed of young men. They appeared very dejected, and bore not the slightest resemblance to a military force. They showed no inclination to enter into conversation. A resident of Dublin who witnessed their arrival said the prisoners seemed to have come chiefly from the country districts, few of them being Dublin men. After they had entrained, a few slightly wounded men were landed.

TRIBUTE TO TROOPS.
SIR J. MAXWELL’S GENERAL ORDER.
REFERENCE TO IRISH REGIMENTS.

The following General Order has been issued to the troops by Sir John Maxwell, General Commanding-in-Chief the Forces in Ireland:-

“I desire to thank the troops who have been engaged in the city of Dublin for their splendid behaviour under the trying conditions of street fighting which I found it necessary to order them to undertake. Owing to the excellent directions of the officers, and the tireless efforts of the troops, all the surviving rebels in Dublin have now surrendered unconditionally. I especially wish to express my gratitude to those Irish regiments which have so largely helped to crush the rising. Many incidents of very gallant behaviour have been brought to my notice, which I am unable to refer to in this order, but I must express my admiration of the conduct of a small detachment from the 6th Reserve Cavalry Regiment, which, when conveying ammunition, was attacked in Charles street, and, after a splendid defence for three and a half days, during which their leaders were struck down, safely delivered the ammunition.
J.G. Maxwell,
General Commanding-in-Chief the Forces in Ireland
Headquarters, Irish Command, May 1, 1916.”

RECAPTURE OF STEPHEN’S GREEN.

One of the most sanguinary engagements of the week was the recapture of St. Stephen’s Green by the military. The rebels took possession on Monday, simultaneously with the attack on the Post Office and the Castle and by night had strongly entrenched themselves on the Green itself. By some strange neglect however, they omitted to seize in sufficient force the buildings near by, notably, the Shelbourne Hotel, which dominates the position, with the result that when these were occupied by the troops on Tuesday the position was lost from the start. The Sinn Feiners, however, put up a gallant fight, and many paid the penalty with their lives before the remnant, about a dozen in number, surrendered.
The earthworks thrown up during the preceding evening were further strengthened by a huge barricade of motor-cars and carts commandeered from the streets, and around this the battle wages fiercely. One of the most prominent among the defenders was the notorious Countess Markievicz, who, it will be remembered, played a prominent part in the Larkin riots of 1912. Attired in the dark green uniform worn by a number of the volunteers, with a bandolier slung over her shoulder, she had previously been seen distributing arms from a motor-car.
Decimated at first by rifle fire from the surrounding buildings, the rebels were finally routed by means of hand grenades. These inflicted great slaughter on the defenders of the trenches, and when the survivors surrendered, a heap of dead bodies testified to the fierceness of the fray.
Directly the fighting began on Monday he rebels took steps to cut off railway communication, but that was signally unsuccessful. Broadstone, Westland Row, and other stations were occupied, it is true, but they failed utterly in their attempt to secure control of all the termini. A fatal mistake was the failure to occupy Amiens street, for it was through this point that troops were rushed into the city from all points.
A small band of rebels did make an endeavour to cut the embankment which carried the line by an inlet from Dublin Bay, between Clontarf and Fairview, but the venture was left too late. Several slight explosions were heard, but no real damage was done to the embankment, and the men were forced to beat a hasty retreat before the brisk fire opened by a number of troops who appeared on the scene in the nick of time. A fierce engagement followed on Amnesty bridge, but here again the Sinn Feiners were forced to retire. They lost heavily in both engagements, and the troops subsequently remained undisturbed in possession of the bridge and embankment, although firing went on intermittently between centries and snipers.
Attempts were also made to destroy bridges. A graphic account of a brush with one of these bands was given me by a sentry guarding the house in which for nearly three days two journalistic colleagues and myself were imprisoned owing to the fighting which was going on all round.

“The rebels had tried to destroy a bridge over the canal at Phibsboro,” he said, “but only partially succeeded. When we came up they had fortified the position with a strong barricade, which was held in force. Although we inflicted some loss, we were unable to make any impression with rifle fire, and the captain brought up a machine gun; but though we seemed to riddle the barricade with it, the attack was still ineffective, and eventually a gun was sent for. Half a dozen 18 pounder shells did a great amount of damage. I am not exaggerating when I say that arms and legs and other ghastly fragments flew about in all directions. When we took possession there was barely a man left alive, and the barricade was a horrible sight.”
The main attack by the military did not fully materialise until Wednesday, by which time continual firing was universal over the city, and the troops had begun the drive which eventually resulted in the main bodies of the rebels being in the narrow confines of the principal centres, Sackville street and Four Courts. The attack on the Post Office was pressed more strongly the next day. From neither end of Sackville street did the Post Office present a very good target and the difficulties of the attack were enhanced by the continued sniping which went on from the roofs of adjoining buildings. By breaking through the walls into the Metropole, and similarly on to adjacent premises, the Sinn Feiners were enabled to keep half of the street under fire without exposing themselves. To this the military replied with a constant hail of rifle and machine-gun fire, which was maintained during artillery bombardment. Gradually the Post Office itself was battered to pieces, and by Saturday evening the survivors were forced to evacuate it. Many had escaped into other buildings through the holes broken in the walls, and these included some fifty women and girls who had volunteered to follow their men-folk. Pearse, the self-styled “President of the Republic,” was carried out suffering from a broken thigh. Shortly afterwards the flutter of a white flag stopped all firing, and the armistices was arranged which later developed into unconditional surrender.
Liberty Hall, the headquarters of Larkin’s organisation, the Irish Transport Workers’ Union, and a hotbed of Sinn Feinism, was destroyed on Wednesday. From the roof of the Custom House and the Tivoli Theatre machine-guns sprayed the building continually, successfully keeping down the rebels’ fire. At the same time a Royal Naval Reserve gunboat crept unperceived up the Liffey, and took up her position near the Butt Bridge. Two small guns were already in position elsewhere, and at a given signal the bombardment was opened simultaneously from river and land. Within a very short time both the hall and adjoining buildings also occupied by the rebels were practically wrecked, and when the troops advanced to take possession there were barely any but the dead to receive them.
The support accorded the outbreak by the poorest of the working classes is universally ascribed to two reasons – the heavy taxation of high prices, and the fear of conscription. The high prices undoubtedly press hardly on the Irish workers, among whom wages generally are lower than is the case in England. As to conscription, however little the fear may be justified, there is no doubt that a firm belief obtained among many sections of the populace that one of the outcomes of the recent political crisis would be a proposal to extend compulsion to Ireland.
There is one delicate point which has repeatedly been impressed upon us and is important now that the fate of the remainder of these unfortunate men remain in the hands of the Government. It is the allegation that in many cases their participation in the preliminary stages of the revolt was to some extent unpremeditated and involuntary. For some long time now the Volunteers, as they are generally known, have been subjected to surprise calls by their leaders for training and other purposes, and it is asserted by many loyally disposed citizens who are well acquainted with individual members that on this occasion also numbers of the men who were called out were unaware until they were mobilised and the revolt started, of the actual purpose of the summons.


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The 1916 Rising in the Clare Newspapers