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Archaeology of the Burren: Prehistoric Forts and Dolmens in North Clare by Thomas Johnson Westropp

Part V: French and Irish Forts: Footnotes

1. Journal’, vol. xxvi, pp. 142, 362; vol. xxvii, p. 116; vol. xxviii, p. 352; vol. xxix, p. 367; vol. xxxi, pp. 1, 273; vol. xxxv, pp. 205, 342.

2. Ibid., vol. xxxviii, pp. 28, 221, 344; vol. xxxix, p. 115.

3. Vol. xli, p. 117.

4. Vol. xxvi (c), pp. 217, 371; vol. xxix (c), p. 186.

5. I especially refer to the fine reports of each individual Congress of the Prehistoric Congress (espically the Compte-rendu de la 3me Session, Autun, 1907, p. 997, for a comparative study of the early forts of Europe, by Dr. A. Guébhard), the Bulletins of the Prehistoric Society of France, and the Reports of the Commission for the study of early enclosures under the last-named Society. Of individual papers, I also refer to ‘Les enceintes préhistoriques des Pré-Alpes maritimes’, by Dr. Guébhard (printed at Nice, 1907); Bullenins 25-26 du Club alpin français: and his ‘Le vrai problème des enceintes prèhistoriques’ (Congrès II). I purposely refrain from citing (save in one case too apposite to omit) papers in other French societies.

6. This, of course, is not unknown in Great Britain.

7. Bulletin Soc. Arch. de la Charente’, 1899, described and figured by M.A. Cognot.

8. It is only in the publications of the ‘Soc. préhist. de France’ that I find any descriptions of buildings comparable to Turlough Hill Fort or the Cathair of Ballydonohan: see ‘Journal’, vol. xxxv, p. 224 and ‘Proc. R. I. Acad.’, vol. xxvii, p. 395. Cf. ‘Rapports soc. préhist. de France’, 1907, p. 4, and 1909-10, p. 421.

9. Proc. R. I. A. Acad’., vol. xxvii, p. 227.

10. Supra, vol. xl, p. 291.

11. ’Three Irish Glossaries’ (ed. Whitley Stokes, 1862); Cormac’s Glossary (c 800), p. xli. The horrible legend of the burial alive of Odran (a companion of St. Columba), with his own consent, may be found in The Book of Lismore, p. 7. See also ‘Proc. R.I.A.’ (1870), p. 267.

12. Life of St. Cellach, in ‘Silva Gadelica’ (S. H. O’Grady, translated), vol. ii, p. 65.

13. See ‘Folk Lore’, vol. xxii, p. 54.

14. For this group see supra, vol. xxviii, pp. 357, 359; vol. xxxv, pp. 217, 218; vol. xxvi, p. 119. If the antiquaries of Co. Cork had not since the time of John Windele absolutely ignored their fine series of forts, we might find very apposite cases; at least one is found in Cahermoygilliar.

15. Such, I find from Mr. O’Dea, the owner of Ballyganner Castle, is the local name of the ‘Dolmen Caher,’ of Ballyganner, it having been a haunt of thieves: ‘Journal’, vol. xxvi, p. 119. It may be identified on Map No. 9 of the recent Ordnance Survey (division 11), by being close to the S.E. mearing of Ballyganner North, at the word ‘cromlech,’ and due north from the B of the townland name of Ballyganner South. The small fort to the N.E. is in the ‘Cairn Caher.’

16. See a very helpful paper, by M. Ulysse Dumas, ‘Bulletin Soc. préhist. de France’, 1908, pp. 156, 183. I cleared as far as I was able the annexe of the pillared dolmen of Ballyganner, and made a plan of the entire structure, my previous ones only giving the actual dolmen.

17. This does not imply ‘strong position, weak fort,’ for Cashlaun Gar and others on strong, naturally defended sites are very massive, and others on level fields or in hollows, thin-walled and poorly built.

18. It is interesting to note that in the French studies, so closely akin to those of our Irish forts, the same difficulty is felt. ‘L’épithète de préhistorique . . . mais qui doit s’efforcer d’inventorier le plus grand nombre possible de monuments sans histoire.’ (Rapport 3, Commission for the study of enclosures).

19. I have been contradicted in the early days of this survey for stating the contrary, for the subject of forts was then regarded as ‘closed.’

20. A closely similar souterrain in Ballinderry Fort, near Tuam, is described by Dr. T. B. Costello and Mr. R. J. Kirwin in the ‘Journal of the Galway Archæological and Historical Society’, vol.ii, p. 105, and especially p. 115.

21. The pretty sea name ‘Rossalia’ occurs on the creek near New Quay. It was an old property of Lord Inchiquin (Murrogh the Burner) in 1641-55. Ballyvelaghan was then held by Turlough More O’Loughlin, Owen son of Lissagh O’Loughlin and William Neylan.

22. There is a Lissavaun Hill in Behagh, but I believe no trace of a fort remains there.

23. Journal’, vol. xxix, p. 380; vol. xxxi, p. 286; ‘Proc. R.I.A.’, vol. xxvi (c.), Plate xxiii.

24. I give along with its plan those of the other Berneens and Gleninshen dolmens.

25. See ‘Journal’, xxix, p. 371, for previous notes.

26. See ‘Journal’, vol. xxix, p. 373.

27. I duplicate the English words in imitation of the ‘Caher-lis.’

28. Book of Distribution and Survey, Clare (P.R.O.I.), vol. ii, p. 468.

29. Book of Distribution and Survey, Clare (P.R.O.I.), vol. ii, p. 468.

30. Trans. R.I.A.’, vol. xxxiii (B), p.1.

31. See ‘Jounal ’, vol. xxix, p. 374.

32. Proc. R.I.A.’, vol. xxvii (c), p. 375.

33. Journal’, xxviii, p. 363.

34. Journal’, vol. xxviii, p. 362, Plan No. 3, p. 363.

35. Ibid., vol. xxviii, p. 360.

36. Locally ‘Moherroon’ or ‘Moor-roon.’

37. Journal’, vol. xxvi, p. 366; ‘Ancient Forts of Ireland’, fig. 13, No. 6; ‘Proc. R.I.A.’, p. 192.

38. I give an illustration to scale, only part of the right jamb is restored.

39. Copy in Public Record Office, Dublin. It gives the following fort names, Cahermacnaghtin (held by Walcott) in Noughaval parish; Lismacshida, ffinagh, Lislarhy, Lismacteige, Lislogherne, Lisduan, Lissilisine, Caherigoola, Lisgogane and Ballyallaban, in Rathborney.

40. Dublin Registry of Deeds Book, vol. ix, p. 285. Mohernacloughbristy is probably one of the enclosures at Cahernabihoonach at the great ‘Broken Rock,’ Cloch Briste.

41. Dr. MacNamara recently records the form Caherghoolin (? Cathair Ui Dhulain).

42. See ‘Journal’, vol. xxvii, p. 120.

43. Published by the late Mr. Frost, ‘History and Topography of the County Clare’, p. 18.

44. In the ‘Journal of the North Munster Archaeological Society’.

45. Some unknown place called the ‘Shallow Basket,’ from its shape, or some wicker structure.


Part 5